The bark of Pteroceltis tatarinowii is one of the main raw materials for the manufacturing of Xuan paper. In order to guide the production of Xuan paper, the anatomical properties and chemical compositions of the bark and branch wood from P. tatarinowii at different years of age were analyzed in this study. The results from a variation analysis of the anatomical properties indicated that the ratio of the length to width of the bark and branch wood was greater than 30, while the ratio of the lumen diameter to the wall thickness was less than 1. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the length and the ratio of length to width of the bark and branch wood. The results from a variation analysis of the chemical composition indicated that the lignin content of branch wood at various ages (years) was greater than the lignin content of bark. Additionally, the cellulose extractive and pentosan contents of the branch wood was less than the contents in the bark. Based on the analysis of the anatomical and chemical composition, barks that were 2 to 3 years old were the most suitable raw materials for the manufacturing of Xuan paper.