The anatomical features of three valuable commercial Gigantochloa bamboo species growing in Indonesia, including G. pseudoarundinacea, G. apus, and G. atroviolacea, were investigated by optical microscopy. The relative crystallinity and crystalline width of the culm of the bamboo species were examined by an X-ray diffraction method. These species contained vascular bundle of type III. Vascular bundle density was higher in the outer part of bamboo culm than in the inner. Fiber portion decreased from the outer part to the inner part and vice versa for the parenchyma and vessel portions. Fiber length of all species was higher in the outer part than the inner part of the culm. There was a significant difference in the fiber percentage between the bamboo species. Significant differences were also found in vessel diameter and parenchyma cell dimensions among the bamboo species. There was a slight difference in the crystalline properties between the outer and inner parts of the culm and among the bamboo species. All parameters showed a variation in the radial direction of the three bamboo culm but did not show a consistent tendency along the vertical direction.