Chemical constituents of naturally decayed Qinghai spruce branches were analyzed in terms of holocellulose, lignin, and pentosan. The holocellulose content declined from 57.98% to 35.29% in one year. The rate of change may be related to weather conditions, i.e., the rate of variation was higher when the temperature was high and rainfall was abundant. The changes in lignin and pentosan relative content were completely different from holocellulose; they increased first and then decreased during the decay period. Compared with fresh raw materials, pentosan content (from 14.44% to 25.9%) was increased by 79.4% after four months decay. The highest yield of furfural (10.2%) prepared by a two-stage method from decayed Qinghai spruce branches was similar to the reported yield from corncobs.