NC State
(RETRACTED) Cai, H. (2019). "Wetting behavior and surface energy of bamboo fiber determined via dynamic contact angle analysis using the Wilhelmy technique," BioRes. 14(3), 5121-5131.


The object of this paper was to obtain stable and reproducible dynamic contact angles (CA) and calculate the surface energy (SE) of bamboo fiber. The average wetted perimeter of bamboo fiber was determined using the Wilhelmy technique. The dispersion and polar components of the bamboo fiber at different immersion velocities were also investigated using the Owens-Wendt approach. The results indicated that the use of the mean wetted perimeter of 30 fibers to estimate the dynamic contact angle was feasible and accurate. As the measured velocity increased, the dynamic advancing contact angle of bamboo fiber first rapidly increased and then gradually stabilized. The surface energy of bamboo fiber presented a tendency of nonlinear decrease when the test speed increased. A measured velocity set from 1 mm/min to 3 mm/min was reasonable for the bamboo fiber dynamic CA test, with an obtained SE of 41.7 mN/m to 43.6 mN/m. A correlation and partial correlation analysis showed that the reliability coefficient had 14.1% correlation between the dynamic CA and measure velocity was induced by the synergistic effect of the testing liquid. The SE of bamboo fiber was negatively correlated to its dynamic advancing CA.

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RETRACTED: February 20, 2021. The author has retracted this paper because of errors in the experimental design and data analysis that may influence the results of this study.