A method for the immunological visualization of plant polysaccharides in native plant tissues was adopted for the histological investigation of xylan on kraft pulp and xylan-enriched viscose fibers. The method consisted of the selective labeling of xylan structures through the binding of specific monoclonal primary antibodies and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-carrying secondary antibodies. This indirect immunolabeling method was adapted for pulp and viscose fibers through the blockage of unspecific binding sites with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which allowed a selective localization of xylan. The combination of this technique with high resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) rendered a parallel detection of morphological changes of pulp fibers alongside various processing steps possible. Within this study, kraft pulps from birch, beech, and eucalyptus were investigated throughout a purification process that enabled an upgrade from paper pulps to dissolving pulps by caustic hemicellulose extraction and xylan-enriched viscose fibers. The method demonstrated its potential for gaining novel insights into pulp purification, as well as fiber modification through the application of an immunolabeling method.