NC State
  • Researchpp 3362-3374Svensson Meulmann, S., Rydell Blom, A., and Sjökvist, T. (2024). “Wood properties influencing surface cracking and moisture dynamics of untreated Norway spruce exposed outdoors,” BioResources 19(2), 3362-3374.AbstractArticlePDF

    Untreated wood has excellent environmental benefits due to the lack of treatments; however, its durability needs to be great enough to provide a sufficient service life to not override the environmental benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate some wood properties of untreated, unfinished Norway spruce and their influence on moisture dynamics and crack development under natural exposure. Three field-trials were carried out, all under natural exposure during various exposure times. The specimens differed in their exposure direction (north/south), composition (heartwood/ sapwood), density, and thickness. Moisture measurements were carried out either by use of sensors or weighing the specimens, while the crack formation was measured using digital calipers. Generally, high-density spruce exhibited more rapid moisture fluctuations than low-density; this agreed well with the increased crack development observed in the field-trials. More cracks were observed for specimens containing sapwood rather than heartwood. This was likely caused by an increase in moisture uptake, generating greater moisture gradients. The results also showed that the crack tendency was greater in specimens within the high-density group placed facing south, which is likely due to an increase in moisture variation, and perhaps also faster UV-deterioration. No clear correlation between crack tendency and thickness was found.


  • Researchpp 3375-3389Milbreta, U., Andze, L., Filipova, I., and Dortins, E. (2024). “Effect of nanofibrillated cellulose on alginate and chitosan film properties as potential barrier coatings for paper food packaging,” BioResources 19(2), 3375-3389.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study aimed to test the utility of ammonium persulfate (APS) oxidised nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as an additive for chitosan- and alginate-based biopolymer films that could eventually be used as paper coatings for food packaging applications. Sodium alginate and chitosan were used as the base for the films. Various concentrations of APS oxidised NFC ranging from 0% to 10% were used as a reinforcing agent, resulting in six combinations of either alginate-NFC or chitosan-NFC composite films. Biofilms were tested for their mechanical properties (tensile strength and strain), grease barrier properties, air permeability, water vapour permeability, and degradation in the soil. Overall, when using the ammonium persulfate oxidation pretreatment method, the best performance of the films was estimated with the addition of 2.5% NFC.

  • Researchpp 3390-3408Han, B., and Wu, J. (2024). “Environmental Kuznets curve of carbon emissions from China’s forest products industry and decomposition of factors influencing carbon emissions,” BioResources 19(2), 3390-3408.AbstractArticlePDF

    Carbon emissions from China’s forest products industry were considered based on the data of 2001-2020. Then a carbon emissions Kuznets curve was constructed to judge the relationship between the economic development level and carbon emissions. The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) was used to analyze the influencing factors of carbon emissions. The carbon emissions from China’s forest products industry showed a trend of rapid growth in the early stage and slow decline in the later stage, increasing from 19.46 million tonnes in 2001 to 54.18 million tonnes in 2020. Consumption of raw coal was the main reason for the increase in carbon emissions. There was an inverted-U relationship between the economic development level and carbon emissions, and the industry output value of CNY 3306.56 billion was the theoretical inflection point. The current economic development level of the industry was in the left-half part of the inverted “U” shape, indicating that carbon emissions from this industry will continue to increase with the increase of industrial output. Economic development was the key factor driving the increase of carbon emissions in the forest products industry, while the energy intensity was the key factor inhibiting the growth of carbon emissions.

  • Researchpp 3409-3420Yang, L., Yuan, Y., and Lu, X. (2024). “Relationship between mechanical properties and height-diameter ratio of moso bamboo,” BioResources 19(2), 3409-3420.AbstractArticlePDF

    Systematic tests of longitudinal compression, bending, longitudinal shear, and longitudinal tensile strength of bamboo were conducted to study the variation of mechanical properties and the height-diameter ratio of bamboo. The predictive relations of mechanical properties and height-diameter ratio were fitted by linear regression analysis. The results showed that the mechanical properties of longitudinal compression, bending, longitudinal shear, and longitudinal tensile strength of bamboo increased with the increase of the height-diameter ratio. In this paper, the method of deducing the relationship between mechanical properties and height-diameter ratio of bamboo through the linear fitting relationship between mechanical properties and height-diameter ratio was shown to have high applicability and accuracy for bamboo. This paper has a certain reference value for the evaluation of mechanical properties of bamboo and has a certain practical value for reducing the testing cost.

  • Researchpp 3421-3435Gezer, E. D., Uçar, E., and Gümüşkaya, E. (2024). “Physical and mechanical properties of mycelium-based fiberboards,” BioResources 19(2), 3421-3435.AbstractArticlePDF

    Mycelium-based fiberboards were evaluated as potential environmentally friendly substitutes for conventional wood-based composites. The goal of this study was to produce and test fiberboards out of yellow pine and poplar fiber mixtures without using any extra adhesive. Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum fungi were used. The physical and mechanical characteristics of the fiberboards were tested under the influence of two different types of fungi and two different incubation periods. The key findings indicated that the mycelium-based fiberboards had higher water absorption and thickness swelling percentages compared to control boards produced with adhesives. The fiberboards produced from fibers inoculated with Ganoderma lucidum and incubated for 30 days had higher mechanical properties compared to other test fiberboards. This indicated the possibility of utilizing them in specific applications. Although the mycelium-based fiberboards did not fully meet all the EN 622-5 (2009) standard requirements for dry-condition use, the results highlighted their potential in sustainable material development. This study provided useful insights into the utilization of mycelium for the development of mycelium-based fiberboards.

  • Researchpp 3436-3460Shi, X., Shen, H., Qin, S., Liu, Y., Shen, X., Chu, D., and Liu, S. (2024). “Properties of poplar veneer modified by Acid Red 3R dye in combination with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,” BioResources 19(2), 3436-3460.AbstractArticlePDF

    Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) is a nitrogen-phosphorus-based inorganic flame retardant that is environmentally friendly and non-toxic. Wood treated with ADP has enhanced thermal stability and flame retardancy. Compounding ADP with Acid Red 3R dye further improves the decorative effect of the wood on the basis of excellent flame retardancy, resulting in a kind of dyeing and flame retardant multifunctionalized wood. Single-factor tests were designed to investigate the effects of flame retardant concentration, dye concentration, temperature, and time on three evaluation indexes: dye-uptake, color difference, and oxygen index, respectively. Through SEM and FTIR analysis, it was found that after the wood was simultaneously treated with flame retardant and dye, the two additives were aggregated in the grain pores of the cell wall by a simple physical combination. They did not undergo a chemical reaction. TG analysis showed that fire-retardant dyed wood had good thermal stability, which can delay the thermal degradation of wood and increase the residual charcoal rate of wood. XRD showed that the crystallinity of fire-retardant dyed wood increased compared to untreated wood. Through cone calorimetric test, it is found that flame retardant dyed veneer had excellent flame retardancy.


  • Researchpp 3461-3474Ab Patar, M. N. A., Manssor, N. A. S., Isa, M. R.,  Jusoh, N. A. I., Abd Latif, M. J., Sivasankaran, P. N., and Mahmud, J. (2024). “Quantifying and predicting the tensile properties of silicone reinforced with Moringa oleifera bark fibers,” BioResources 19(2), 3461-3474.AbstractArticlePDF

    To obtain a better understanding of using Moringa oleifera bark (MOB) as a reinforcement in a silicone matrix, this study aimed to define the mechanical properties of this new material under uniaxial tension. Composite samples of 0 wt%, 4 wt%, 8 wt%, 12 wt%, and 16 wt% MOB powder were produced. The tensile properties were quantified mathematically using the neo-Hookean hyperelastic model. The collected data were employed to establish multiple inputs of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict its material constant via MATLAB. The result showed that the material constant for the 16 wt% fiber content sample was 63.9% higher than pure silicone. This was supported by the tensile modulus testing, which indicated that the modulus increased as the fiber content increased. However, the elongation ratio (λ) of the MOB-silicone biocomposite decreased slightly compared to the pure silicone. Lastly, the prediction of the material constant using an ANN recorded a 2.03% percentage error, which showed that it was comparable to the mathematical modelling. Therefore, the inclusion of MOB fibers into silicone produced a stiffer material and gradually improved the composite. Furthermore, the network that had multiple inputs (weighting, load, and elongation) was more reliable to produce precise predictions.

  • Researchpp 3475-3488Cao, J., Qu, H., Li, R., Wang, P., Fu, J., and Chen, M. (2024). “Effects of membrane covers and biochar on compost quality and greenhouse gas reduction in aerobic composting,” BioResources 19(2), 3475-3488.AbstractArticlePDF

    The addition of biochar and the use of membrane coverings are two methods used in aerobic composting of agricultural waste. The effectiveness of each of these two methods on compost quality and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was tested in the laboratory. The results showed that both methods increased the maximum composting temperature and extended the thermophilic period. The germination index of biochar-treated compost and membrane-covered compost reached 70% on the 18th day, which was 12 days earlier than the corresponding value in the control group. The products from the biochar-treated compost had higher pH and lower electrical conductivity, compared with the product of the control group, indicating that these products are more suitable for acidic soils. In terms of greenhouse gas reduction, both methods were found to reduce the emissions of CH4 and N2O from composting. The addition of biochar had a better emission reduction effect on N2O, whereas the membrane covering technique yielded a better effect on CH4 emission reduction. The results of this study provide technical support for managed aerobic composting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Researchpp 3489-3504Kasmani, J. E., and Samariha, A. (2024). “Comparison of the effects of two biodegradable coatings on the characteristics of white-top linerboard used in packaging food materials in cold environments,” BioResources 19(2), 3489-3504.AbstractArticlePDF

    Effects of two biodegradable coatings were compared relative to the characteristics of white-top linerboard. To coat the surface of the paperboard, nano-polyurethane was sprayed onto the surface using a nozzle. Subsequently, the samples were placed inside a refrigerator and freezer for a period of 2 and 4 months. In the second stage, nano-polyurethane was again sprayed onto the surface, using a nozzle, to improve the performance of the coating material. To further enhance the coating, the surfaces of the coated white-top linerboard were coated with a nanoclay using a laboratory coater. Subsequently, the samples were placed inside a refrigerator and freezer for a period of 2 and 4 months. The properties of the samples were measured thereafter. The results showed a reduction in water absorption of the samples after coating and freezing. This can be attributed to the penetration of the coating solution into the paper pores, resulting in a decrease in pore diameter and, consequently, a decrease in water permeability through the paper pores. In the coated and frozen samples, an increase in thickness and surface smoothness was observed, but most of the mechanical strength properties decreased. These changes were more pronounced in the dual-layer coatings.

  • Researchpp 3505-3519Fu, X., Yu, F., Zhang, H., Luo, Y., and Zang, L. (2024). “Online prediction of the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of crop straw,” BioResources 19(2), 3505-3519.AbstractArticlePDF

    The extent of removal of lignin and hemicellulose are crucial indicators for evaluating the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of crop straw. Numerous factors influence these two indices. Establishing a quantitative model that correlates these factors with hydrolysis efficiency is essential, as it can guide efficient hydrolysis. In this study, a predictive method for enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency in crop straw was proposed using Grey relational analysis (GRA), Kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and a least squares support vector machine (LSSVM). The authors collected a dataset from actual production data and developed an efficiency predictive model using GRA for variable selection, KPCA for dimensionality reduction, and LSSVM for model training. This model allows for the direct estimation of the final enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency based on production condition variables, which can include enzyme amount, temperatures, pH, time, agitation, and straw dimensions. Extensive experimental testing validated the effectiveness of the proposed method, resulting in minimal errors, a high degree of fit, and exceptional performance. The methodology described in this study can serve as a foundation for optimising the design of efficient enzymatic hydrolysis production processes for crop straw. Additionally, it offers valuable soft measurements to support efficient control of the enzymatic hydrolysis process.


54 years ago

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