NC State
  • Editorialpp 3811-3814Lindman, B., and Medronho, B. (2015). "The subtleties of dissolution and regeneration of cellulose: Breaking and making hydrogen bonds," BioRes. 10(3), 3811-3814.AbstractArticlePDF

    Cellulose dissolution and regeneration are old topics that have recently gained renewed attention. This is reflected in both applications – earlier and novel – and in scientific controversies. There is a current discussion in the literature on the balance between hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions in controlling the solution behavior of cellulose. Some of the key ideas are recalled.

  • Editorialpp 3815-3817Vaz, S. (2015). "An analytical chemist's view of lignocellulosic biomass," BioRes. 10(3), 3815-3817.AbstractArticlePDF

    Lignocellulosic biomass comprises wood and agricultural residues, which are sources of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin (the lignocellulosic fractions), and represents the major biomass source. Each of these types of lignocellulosic fractions has its own particular structural characteristics and chemistry, which can be exploited in chemical analyses. For a general approach, the quality of the biomass used determines the product quality. Therefore, reliable information is required about the chemical composition of the biomass to establish the best use (e.g., most suitable conversion process and its conditions), which will influence harvest and preparation steps. Then, analytical chemistry is required to understand and control these processes, their raw materials, products, and residues.

  • Researchpp 3818-3830Li, X., Yu, H., Sun, D., Jiang, J., and Zhu, L. (2015). "Comparative study of enzymatic hydrolysis properties of pulp fractions from waste paper," BioRes. 10(3), 3818-3830.AbstractArticlePDF

    As a lignocellulosic material, wastepaper is a potential material for ethanol production. However, little research on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wastepaper pulp has been conducted. In this study, the enzymatic hydrolysis of different waste pulp fractions (R80 represents greater than 80-mesh wastepaper pulp, R80-180 represents the range of 80- to 180-mesh wastepaper pulp, and R180 represents smaller than 180-mesh waste paper pulp) were carried out at 50 °C, pH 4.8, for 96 h, with a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) and cellulase loading of 18 FPU/g cellulose. In terms of the specific surface area, fiber structure, and surface morphology, R80-180 had the highest affinity to cellulase and therefore the highest glucose yield of 80.33%. R180 had the lowest glucose yield (55.36%) because of its high ash content (21.36%), which reduced the adsorption of cellulase to cellulose. The enzymatic hydrolysis of R80 mixed with R80 or R80-180 was also studied. Results indicated that adding R80-180 increased the glucose yield of R80. The highest glucose yield (82.57%) was obtained when 15% R80-180 was mixed with R80. However, the glucose content decreased when R180 was mixed with R80 because of its high ash content.

  • Researchpp 3831-3838Li, R., Guo, X., Ekevad, M., Marklund, B., and Cao, P. (2015). "Investigation of glueline shear strength of pine wood bonded with PVAc by response surface methodology," BioRes. 10(3), 3831-3838.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effects of process parameters (adhesive spread, press time, and applied pressure) on the response parameter (shear strength) of pine wood bonded with PVAc were studied. Response surface methodology was applied for design of experiments and for analysis of results. A mathematical model was developed to establish the relationship between the process parameters and response parameters. The results showed that the major factors were adhesive spread and applied pressure. The shear strength increased as the adhesive spread and applied pressure increased within certain ranges.

  • Researchpp 3839-3851Guo, M., and Bi, J. (2015). "Pyrolysis characteristics of corn stalk with solid heat carrier," BioRes. 10(3), 3839-3851.AbstractArticlePDF

    Pyrolysis of corn stalk with a solid heat carrier was studied under temperatures ranging from 430 to 620 °C. The solid heat carrier used was high-temperature ash from a CFB boiler. The yields of three products and their characteristics were investigated. Moreover, the distributions of sulfur and nitrogen in the products were determined. The results indicate that with increasing temperature, the char yield decreased, gas yield increased, and calorific value of the gas increased from 10.13 to 16.65 MJ/m3. The yield of bio-oil reached a maximum, 14.24 wt.%, at 510 °C. Light-oil in the bio-oil accounted for more than 69.12 wt.%. The elemental composition of the char and char ash were analyzed. The distribution of sulfur and nitrogen in the char decreased to 60.44 and 46.52 wt.%, respectively, depending on the raw materials used. These results provide basic data for the possible industrial application of corn stalk.

  • Researchpp 3852-3864Cai, X., and Blanchet, P. (2015). "Electron-beam curing of acrylate/nanoparticle impregnated wood products," BioRes. 10(3), 3852-3864.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study investigated the feasibility of using an electron beam (EB) process to cure chemically impregnated wood products. Maple wood planks were impregnated with the low-viscosity resins 1,6 hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTA). The addition of nanoparticles into the formulation was also studied. The impregnated wood was then cured by EB irradiation. The EB curing method utilizes highly energetic electrons at a controlled energy level to polymerize and cross-link the polymeric materials. The thermal analysis results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that the curing of chemically impregnated wood by electron beam radiation was validated. Polymerization exotherms were observed for the neat acrylate resin and formulations of acrylate/nanoparticles impregnated maple samples. No polymerization exothermal peaks were observed for both EB-cured impregnated maple and control maple samples, confirming that EB irradiation can serve as an efficient curing method to polymerize acrylate-impregnated wood products. The surface hardness of the EB-cured impregnated maple wood was improved up to 200%.

  • Researchpp 3865-3873Cui, Y., Chang, J. M., Wang, W. L., Li, B., and Ren, X. Y. (2015). "Preparation of activated carbon using bio-oil phenol-formaldehyde resin," BioRes. 10(3), 3865-3873.AbstractArticlePDF

    High-specific surface area activated carbon with distinct pore texture was prepared using bio-oil phenol-formaldehyde (BPF) resin as the raw material and KOH as the activator for chemical activation. The carbonization process was characterized with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).The pore texture was characterized with measurements obtained by N2 adsorption analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that adding bio-oil to phenol-formaldehyde resin can partly enhance the thermal stability and improve the textural properties of activated carbon. The functional groups of BPF resin gradually disappeared in the carbonization reaction with increasing temperature. The activated carbon prepared by BPF resin with 30%wt bio-oil exhibited the optimal perfomance.

  • Researchpp 3874-3889Withers, J., Quesada-Pineda, H. J., and Smith, R. (2015). "Internal and external barriers impacting non-food cellulosic biofuel projects in the United States," BioRes. 10(3), 3874-3889.AbstractArticlePDF

    Escalating demand, along with EPAct 2005, has led the United States government to assume a twofold leadership approach of energy security and environmental practices. This has initiated several important issues pertaining to cellulosic biofuel production. However, little is known about what is needed for the U.S. to lead long-term renewable energy security, how the US will develop and implement leading environmental energy practices, what supply capabilities and refining technologies are available to produce renewable fuels, and how funding can be used to adopt available technologies. This article examines geographical aspects, operational status, and barriers tending to prevent the successful commercialization of non-food cellulosic ethanol projects in the U.S. from secondary sources. Outcomes of this research can be used to further understand inhibitors that impact the production and commercialization of ethanol from non-food cellulosic sources.

  • Researchpp 3890-3907Ibrahim, M. F., Linggang, S., Jenol, M. A., Yee, P. L., and Abd-Aziz, S. (2015). "Effect of buffering system on acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 using pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch," BioRes. 10(3), 3890-3907.AbstractArticlePDF

    Change of pH has been identified as the most significant parameter in modulating the transition between the conversions of acids into solvents in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridia. Thus, ABE fermentation at various phosphate buffer concentrations and initial pH values was conducted using pure glucose and sugars derived from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). A higher solvent concentration (2.93 g/L) was obtained in the fermentation using 20 g/L of glucose with buffer compared with one without buffer that produced 1.34 g/L of solvents. Approximately 8.77 and 9.15 g/L of solvents were produced from fermentation using 40 g/L of glucose with and without buffer, respectively. In the latter conditions, at an initial pH of 5.5, 8.77 g/L of solvents was obtained, which was the highest concentration compared to other initial pH values. Increasing the buffer concentration to 0.2 M at an initial pH of 6.0 resulted in acid accumulation of 16.83 g/L but reduced the solvent production to 1.36 g/L. In addition, ABE fermentation using 20 g/L of sugars from pretreated OPEFB produced 2.25 g/L of solvents with a yield of 0.13 g/g, which was comparable with fermentation using 20 g/L of glucose conducted in a buffering system.

  • Researchpp 3908-3921Hu, Z., Que, Y., Gao, Y., Yin, Y., and Zhao, Y. (2015). "Using black liquor from the soda pulping process for protein production by Candida utilis," BioRes. 10(3), 3908-3921.AbstractArticlePDF

    Black liquor produced from pulping with a high value of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) is highly harmful if discharged into the environment directly. One possible way to decrease the damage to the soil and water is to reuse the organic substances contained in it to cultivate yeasts for producing single-cell proteins (SCP) while reducing the COD. With this in mind, this study is devoted to treatment technology and the comprehensive utilization of black liquor. Various parameters were evaluated, and the COD of black liquor, initial pH, and nitrogen sources had significant influences on biomass and crude protein production. The research resulted in the maximum values of COD removal rate and crude protein production with 78.78 ±3.21% and 1.18 ±0.02 g/L achieved, respectively, under the optimized condition of black liquor concentration (60%), the recruitment of urea (0.5 g/L), initial pH (6.0), temperature (34 °C), shaking speed (180 rpm), and incubation time (36 h). Furthermore, this study provided a potential viable treatment of black liquor and revealed a feasible way to make full use of black liquor for the economical production of SCP.