NC State
  • Researchpp 3868-3879Bardak, S. (2018). "Predicting the impacts of various factors on failure load of screw joints for particleboard using artificial neural networks," BioRes. 13(2), 3868-3879.AbstractArticlePDF
    Innovations in the furniture industry have an important place in the global competitive environment. The use of mechanical joining techniques is rapidly increasing in the furniture industry. One of the most common mechanical joining techniques is screwing. This study investigated the impacts of screw diameter, screw length, and the distance between the screws on the failure load of screw joints in particleboard. Additionally, a model was developed on an artificial neural network model (ANN), based on experimental data, to predict the failure load of joints. The results indicated that the highest tension and compression strengths of joints were achieved when the distance is 140 mm between the screws. Joint strengths of all specimens were improved when the screw length and diameter were increased. It is necessary to estimate the effect of various factors to improve furniture joint performance. Coefficients of determination at 0.98 (tension strength test) and 0.96 (compression strength test) were predicted for the testing phase by the ANN model. All these findings established that the prediction was compatible with experimental data of tension and compression strengths. The results of the analysis showed that the neural network approach was effective in predicting the failure load of screw joints and showed that the ANN model has great potential in the design optimization of furniture assemblies.
  • Researchpp 3880-3891Ouyang, T., Wang, L., Cheng, F., Hu, Y., and Zhao, X. (2018). "Lignocellulose fractionation and lignin depolymerization using glycerol and acidic ionic liquids: Identification of the main products by GC-MS," BioRes. 13(2), 3880-3891.AbstractArticlePDF

    Difficulties in fractionation and subsequent conversion of lignocellulosic biomass have restricted the development of sustainable biorefineries of lignocellulosic materials. Herein, an aqueous glycerol/acidic ionic liquid (AGAIL) process of coir was carried out under atmospheric and autogenerated pressure to investigate the lignocellulose fractionation and understand the main conversion products generated during the process. Additionally, the depolymerization capacity of the AGAIL system on lignin was also estimated by analyzing the main degradation products. The results indicated that the process under autogenerated pressure presented much higher delignification efficiency and more effective lignocellulose conversion capability than those under atmospheric pressure. Ribitol and monomeric aromatic compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as the main conversion products of carbohydrates and lignin, respectively. The glycerol/AIL system was shown to be able to depolymerize coir lignin with a resulting lignin depolymerization extent of 28.1%. The main lignin depolymerization products were monomeric aromatic compounds.

  • Researchpp 3892-3904Porakiewicz, B., Wieczorek, D., Bocho-Janiszewska, A., Klimaszewska, E., Tanaka, C., & Darmawan, W. (2018). "A theoretical model for the increases in cutting edge recessions during milling of nine species of wood," BioRes. 13(2), 3892-3904.AbstractArticlePDF

    The high-speed steel (HSS) cutting tool edge recession increase (VB) from milling wood of nine wood species with very different properties were analyzed. Theoretical simulations showed that the synergistic effect of the wood density (D), hard mineral contamination (HMC), and high temperature tribochemical reactions (HTTR), as well as initial edge recessions were important factors that accelerated wearing on the examined cutting edges.

  • Researchpp 3905-3921Zhou, A., Huang, Z., Shen, Y., Huang, D., and Xu, J. (2018). "Experimental investigation of mode-I fracture properties of parallel strand bamboo composite," BioRes. 13(2), 3905-3921.AbstractArticlePDF
    Parallel stand bamboo (PSB) is a high-quality wood-like bamboo composite. Failure due to cracking is a major concern in the design of PSB components for building structures. The mode-I fracture properties of PSB composite were studied. The wedge splitting method was employed as the test approach. Numerical analyses were conducted to determine the appropriate test specimen dimensions so that valid fracture toughness could be obtained. An R-curve was evaluated in accordance with the equivalent linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory. It was found that the initial crack depth ratio should be less than 0.4 for the fracture toughness test. The fracture toughness of PSB is higher than that of commonly used woods, and their fracture behavior is similar, exhibiting quasi-brittle behavior. The R-curve of the PSB exhibits rising behavior until the critical crack length is reached. However, the post-peak R-curve exhibits a descending behavior, contrary to that of quasi-brittle materials, which present a plateau in post-peak crack extension.
  • Researchpp 3922-3931Zhao, H., Wu, H., Hu, H., Li, Y., Li, J., and Zhang, X. (2018). "Cooperative decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by lignin-combined transition metals in pulp bleaching," BioRes. 13(2), 3922-3931.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effects of lignin-combined manganese ion, iron ion, and lignin-combined iron and manganese on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide were investigated. Elemental analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry were used to analyze the chemical features of the lignin composites and the amount of metal ions present in the solution or adsorbed on lignin, respectively. The results showed that the main transition metal elements remaining in the precipitated lignin were Fe, Mn, and Cu. The hydrogen peroxide decomposition in the presence of lignin-combined transition metal was represented by pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs) of peroxide decomposition with lignin-combined iron was 0.0068 min-1, while it was 0.0063 min-1 in the presence of lignin-combined manganese. A synergistic effect of manganese and iron combined with lignin on peroxide decomposition was demonstrated, and a kobs value of 0.0053 min-1 was obtained. The mixed addition of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA) resulted in an optimal reduction in peroxide decomposition when single lignin-combined metal ion existed. However, adding Na2EDTA alone had an optimal effect on the reduction of peroxide decomposition in the presence of lignin-combined iron and manganese, with a kobs value of 0.0004 min-1.

  • Researchpp 3932-3948Chen, T., Luo, L., Li, Z., Zhang, Z., Zheng, S., Zhu, Z., He, J., & Zhao, W. (2018). "Preparation and characterization of nitrogen and oxygen heteroatom codoped activated biocarbons from edamame shell," BioRes. 13(2), 3932-3948.AbstractArticlePDF

    A simple procedure was evaluated to prepare cost-effective heteroatom self-doped porous carbons from edamame shell using a two-step carbonization and activation process. The morphological, structural, textural properties and N2/CO2 adsorption–desorption were investigated. The results showed that edamame shell, which is abundant in nitrogen and oxygen, is an ideal precursor for preparing heteroatom self-doped porous carbons. The N and O contents of the prepared activated carbons (ACs) ranged from 1.20 wt% to 1.81 wt% and 5.13 wt% to 9.98 wt%, respectively. Furthermore, the specific surface area of 1835 m2/g of the N and O doped ACs resulted in mainly microporosity, which suggested that it has promising potential for wide applications in the fields of catalysis, energy conversion, energy storage devices, and adsorption.

  • Researchpp 3949-3957Peşman, E., and Laloğlu, S. (2018). "Recycling of colored office paper. Part I: Pre-bleaching with formamidine sulfinic acid at pulper," BioRes. 13(2), 3949-3957.AbstractArticlePDF

    The possible use of formamidine sulfinic acid (FAS) for pre-bleaching of colored office paper in the stage of pulping was investigated. In addition, the effects of FAS pre-bleaching on different colors were examined. Colored office papers were mixed with white office paper at a 1:4 ratio. FAS was added as 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%, and 2.00% into the pulper. Reduction ability of colors with FAS were determined as yellow, red, green, and blue according to L*, a*, b*, ΔE, and reflectance spectrum at 220 nm to 900 nm wavelength. In other words, it was determined that FAS succeeded on the yellow, red, and green colored waste paper, but it failed on the blue colored waste paper at 10 minute pre-bleaching conditions. On the other hand, in mixed colored waste paper, which can better represent industrial applications, the color difference (ΔE) were calculated as 32.0 with 1% FAS pre-bleaching. This result is successful for pre-bleaching, which is an auxiliary process during re-pulping of waste paper.

  • Researchpp 3958-3970Karaduman, Y. (2018). "Experimental investigation on the flexural and dynamic mechanical properties of jute fiber/cork-reinforced polyester sandwich composites," BioRes. 13(2), 3958-3970.AbstractArticlePDF
    The flexural and dynamic mechanical behavior were evaluated for a new jute woven fabric/cork-reinforced polyester sandwich composite. To improve the fiber/matrix adhesion, jute fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and silane prior to composite preparation. The results indicated that the flexural strength and modulus of the composites increased after the alkali and alkali + silane treatments. Similarly, dynamic mechanical parameters, such as storage and loss modulus of the sandwiches, were enhanced as a result of alkali and silane treatments due to a better fiber/matrix adhesion compared with the untreated composites. It was also shown that the damping parameter decreased after the interfacial treatments, which indicated that the energy damping efficiency decreased as the interface quality was improved.
  • Researchpp 3971-3985de la Cruz-Quiroz, R., Carrillo-Nieves, D., Aguilar-Zárate, P., Carrillo-Inungaray, M. L., Parra-Saldívar, R., and Iqbal, H. M. N. (2018). "Utilization of lignocellulose-based orange peel waste for induced sporulation of Trichoderma asperellum via Box-Behnken matrix design," BioRes. 13(2), 3971-3985.AbstractArticlePDF

    The feasibility of using orange peel residues as a substrate for induced sporulation of Trichoderma asperellum was evaluated. The Box-Behnken matrix (BBM) design was used to screen the effects of several parameters, including the effect of pH, inoculum, and moisture under solid-state fermentation culture conditions. The study was performed in two experimental steps (screening and optimization). Moisture content and pH were determined to be the most influential parameters on spore production during the screening stage. A Box-Behnken design was used to optimize and to define the interaction of the selected parameters. The moisture content was determined as the most significant parameter affecting spore production. An inoculum of 1 × 106 spores g-1, pH 6.07, and moisture content of 69.0% was the combination of conditions observed to achieve the maximum production of 2.04 × 109 spores g-1. The experimental value of 2.16 × 109 spores g-1 (from the experimental model) showed a good fit to the regressed model, with a standard error of 5%. Based on this work, a high yield of spores was obtained at 144 h of cultivation time, indicating that it is a feasible approach to use orange peel as a substrate for biomass and spore production.

  • Researchpp 3986-3993Kong, H., Chen, S., He, W., Chen, C., Wu, J., Ma, H., and Yang, F. (2018). "Preparation and properties of thermally conductive copper paper," BioRes. 13(2), 3986-3993.AbstractArticlePDF

    A new thermally conductive copper paper was prepared with cellulose pulp and ultrafine copper powder in a traditional paper making process. The thermal conductivity of the copper paper was studied in different weight ratios, and the surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the addition of copper powder enhanced the thermal conductivity of copper paper distinctly, with a maximum of up to 0.560 w•m-1•K-1 in the weight ratio of pulp/copper of 1:12, which was an increase of 143% compared with the paper without copper. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that copper papers consisted of copper powder particles distributing compactly on the fiber surface. The tensile index of copper paper decreased compared with the paper without filler. A calendaring process was used to improve the combination between copper particles and fibers and to enhance the thermal conductivity of copper paper.