NC State
  • Editorialpp 2024-2025Hubbe, M. A. (2010). "The implementation of findings published in scholarly articles," BioRes. 5(4), 2024-2025.AbstractPDF
    Articles published in scholarly journals, such as this one, tend to be mainly addressed to researchers at universities. Industrial follow-up and implementation of results from a scholarly article appears to be the exception, rather than the rule. Research grant specifications, as well as university policies, favor the generation of new knowledge, rather than the implementation of good ideas. But without patent protection, corporations have low motivation to expend the considerable effort to reduce ideas to practice after they have been openly published. The author speculates that the situation could be much more dynamic if there were a system of priority of implementation. According to such a system, the first company to successfully implement an idea that first appears in a peer-reviewed journal article, as validated by its debut in the marketplace, would have a grace period during which competitors would have to pay them a fee to sell a generic version of the same thing.
  • Editorialpp 2026-2028Shen, J., Song, Z., Qian, X., Liu, W., and Yang, F. (2010). "Fillers and the carbon footprint of papermaking," BioRes. 5(4), 2026-2028.AbstractPDF
    Carbon footprint reduction is a global concern. For the papermaking industry, strategically effective measures of carbon footprint reduction can include many aspects such as energy efficiency improvement, use of renewable carbon-neutral energy, practicing of sustainable forestry, and development of an integrated forest products biorefinery. Filler addition in papermaking can save substantial amounts of pulp fibers, and reduce energy consumption, which can surely contribute to reduction in paper’s carbon footprint. However, the negative effect of filler addition on paper recycling, and the energy consumption associated with the production, processing, and treatment of fillers, will contribute to the carbon footprint. On balance, it can be considered that filler addition in reasonable amounts is likely to lower the paper’s carbon footprint. Certain research work is still needed to better understand the relationship between filler addition and the carbon footprint of papermaking.
  • Researchpp 2029-2039Gu, X., He, M., Shi, Y., and Li, Z. (2010). "Production of aromatic aldehyde by microwave catalytic oxidation of a lignin model compound with La-containing SBA-15/H2O2 systems," BioRes. 2029-2039.AbstractPDF
    A convenient and efficient application of heterogeneous La-containing SBA-15 systems for the microwave assisted oxidation of a lignin model phenolic monomer, 4-hydroxy-1-phenylpropane, is reported. Low-cost and environmentally friendly H2O2 was used as the oxygen atom donor. The catalyst was prepared by immobilizing lanthanum species on the periodic mesoporous channels of siliceous SBA-15. Powder X-ray diffraction data and ICP-AES revealed that the host retains its hexagonal mesoporous structure after immobilization and most of the lanthanum species are better dispersed in the calcined materials. The surface area and pore size of La/SBA-15 was considerably decreased, indicating the intrapore confinement of the Lanthanum species. The activity of the La/SBA-15 was investigated in the oxidation of 4-hydroxy-1-phenylpropane in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. 70.5% conversion of 4-hydroxy-1-phenylpropane was obtained after 30 min of reaction under 200W microwave irradiation, compared to a poor 28.1% degradation after 24h under conventional heating. The possibility of recycling the catalyst was studied.
  • Researchpp 2040-2050Liu, H., and Wang, L. (2010). "Electroless nickel deposition on Fraxinum mandshurica veneer modified with APTHS for EMI shielding," BioRes. 5(4), 2040-2050.AbstractPDF
    Electroless nickel deposition was carried out on Fraxinus mandshurica veneers for EMI shielding under a new activation process. In the process, Pd(II) was ed on the surface of veneers modified with γ-aminopropyltrihydroxysilane (APTHS) obtained from the hydrolysis of γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). After the reduction, electroless plating was successfully initiated, and Ni-P coating was deposited on the veneers. The activation process and resulting coating were characterized by XPS, SEM-EDS, and XRD. The metal deposition, surface , and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness were measured. XPS analysis proved that Pd(II) was bonded to the amino group of APTHS and reduced to Pd(0). The coating was continuous, uniform, and compact. It consisted of 97.4 wt% nickel and 2.6 wt% phosphorus. XRD analysis showed that the coating was crystalline, which was related to the low phosphorus content. The plated Fraxinus mandshurica veneers exhibit good electro-conductivity with surface resistivity of 0.21Ω·cm-2 and higher electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of over 50dB in frequencies from 10 MHz to 1.5 GHz.
  • Researchpp 2051-2062Lv., G.-J., Wu, S.-B., and Lou, R. (2010). "Characteristics of corn stalk hemicellulose pyrolysis in a tubular reactor," BioRes. 5(4), 2051-2062.AbstractPDF
    Pyrolysis characteristics of corn stalk hemicellulose were investigated in a tubular reactor at different temperatures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of pyrolysis products (gas, char, and tar). The products obtained were further identified using various approaches (including GC, SEM, and GC-MS) to understand the influence of temperature on product properties and compositions. It was found that the devolatilization of hemicellulose mainly occurred at low temperatures (<500°C), and produced large amounts of tar. A higher reactor temperature was conducive to the yield of gas products, accompanied by a reduction of tar because of the secondary cracking of volatiles. The gas components mainly consisted of CO2, CO, H2, and CH4, together with trace C2H4 and C2H6. The CO2 evolved easily and reached a relatively large yield of 129.2ml/g at 550°C, while CO and H2 were mainly released at higher temperatures (700-900°C). The tar was mainly composed of a range of oxygenated compounds, including ketones, furans, carboxylic acids, and alcohols, and their contents were influenced by the final temperature. An in-depth analysis of the properties of the products generated at different temperatures is favorable for a better understanding of the mechanism of hemicellulose pyrolysis.
  • Researchpp 2063-2080Krongtaew, C., Messner, K., Ters, T., and Fackler, K. (2010). "Characterization of key parameters for biotechnological lignocellulose conversion assessed by FT-NIR spectroscopy. Part 1. Qualitative analysis of pretreated straw," BioRes. 5(4), 2063-2080.AbstractPDF
    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) and oat straw (Avena sativa L.) were subjected to acid and alkaline pre-treatments partly in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The aim was to remove lignin and increase the accessibility of the polysaccharides to enzymatic digestion. Accessibility was evaluated by digestion with a cell wall degrading enzyme complex to yield reducing sugars that may serve as precursor substrates for biofuels or building block chemicals. Changes in lignin, hemicelluloses, as well as amorphous, semi-crystalline, and crystalline regions of cellulose moieties of pretreated straw were efficiently characterized by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. These alterations of the chemical structure of straw after different pre-treatment methods were powerfully differentiated by principal component analysis (PCA). Characteristics of the different samples owing to the different pre-treatment methods could be clustered from the PCA loadings spectra.
  • Researchpp 2081-2096Krongtaew, C., Messner, K., Ters, T., and Fackler, K. (2010). "Characterization of key parameters for biotechnological lignocellulose conversion assessed by FT-NIR spectroscopy. Part 2. Quantitative analysis by partial least squares regression," BioRes. 5(4), 2081-2096.AbstractPDF
    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) and oat straw (Avena sativa L.) were chemically pretreated at different severities with the purpose of delignification, which in turn leads to a better accessibility of plant cell wall polysaccharides for further biotechnological conversion. Key parameters of these samples, i.e. weight loss, residual lignin content, and hydrolysable sugars serving as precursors for biofuel production were monitored by wet-chemistry analyses. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectra were correlated to these data by means of partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Weight loss (4.0 – 33.5%) of the wheat straw could be predicted (RMSEP = 3.5%, R²test = 0.75) from the entire FT-NIR spectra (10000 – 4000 cm-1). Residual lignin content (7.9 – 20.7%, RMSEP = 0.9%, R²test = 0.94) and amount of reducing sugars based on pretreated wheat straw (128 – 1000 mg g-1, RMSEP = 83 mg g-1, R²test = 0.89) were powerfully evaluated between 6900 and 5510 cm-1, a spectral region where polysaccharides and lignin absorb. All these parameters could be equally predicted with even higher accuracy from pre-treated oat straw samples. Furthermore, some important parameters for anaerobic conversion of wheat straw to biogas – biogas production, total solids, and volatile solids content – could be estimated.
  • Researchpp 2097-2111Shibata, S., Bozlur, R. M., Fukumoto, I., and Kanda, Y. (2010). "Effects of injection temperature on mechanical properties of bagasse/polypropylene injection molding composites," BioRes. 5(4), 2097-2111.AbstractPDF
    Effects of injection temperature on thermal degradation and porosity of the bagasse/polypropylene injection molding composites were studied. Above 185 ºC, incomplete filling occurred. The incomplete filling increased with increase of injection temperature. It was found that the gas generated by thermal degradation of bagasse fibers was so accumulated in the injection cylinder that the injected composites ended up with incomplete filling. A modified injection method with the venting of gas increased the complete filling percentage. Mechanical properties decreased with increase of injection temperature from 165 ºC to 260 ºC. This was due to increase of porosity and fiber shortening. The calculated flexural modulus, which incorporated the effect of porosity and fiber length, agreed well with the experimental results. Composites with maleic acid anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) were also investigated. Flexural strength and impact strength were improved by 45% and 35%, respectively, by addition of 20wt% MAPP. In the MAPP composites, fiber breakages at their roots were observed in the fracture surface after an impact test, while pulled-off fibers were observed in those without MAPP.
  • Researchpp 2112-2122Azizi Mossello, A., Harun, J., Resalati, H., Ibrahim, R., Shmas, S. R. F., and Tahir, P. M. (2010). "New approach to use of kenaf for paper and paperboard production," BioRes. 5(4), 2112-2122.AbstractPDF
    This study sought to determine the suitability of fractionation and consequence-selective processing (separation of long fiber and short fiber, beating long fiber, and remixing with short fiber to target freeness) as a new approach to use of kenaf whole stem pulp for paper and paper-board production. A laboratory Bauer-McNett Classifier with screen 18 mesh was used to separate short fibers and long fibers of the unbeaten kenaf whole stem soda-anthraquinone high kappa and low kappa pulps. For comparison, the initial unbeaten pulps were beaten in the PFI mill to the same freeness (300 mL CSF). Results of our patented method showed that the fractionation process was able to provide a good opportunity to beat the long fiber portion at higher PFI revolutions and to achieve better fibrillation, significantly improving all paper properties of kenaf pulps except for tear index and producing sheets with better drainage and strength properties compared to conventionally beaten pulps, especially in the case of kenaf high kappa pulp.
  • Researchpp 2123-2136Dutt, D., Upadhyaya, J. S., and Tyagi, C. H. (2010). "Studies on Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa pulp to be a substitute for softwood pulp - Part 1: AS-AQ delignification process," BioRes 5(4), 2123-2136.AbstractPDF
    Hibiscus cannabinus , Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers), when used together with hardwood (core fibers), gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A comparison of properties AS-AQ pulping processes with soda and kraft pulping processes of H. cannabinus, C. sativa, and H. sabdariffa was made. All the properties were found to be better than soda and kraft pulps except tear index. All of the mechanical strength properties of handsheets of AS-AQ pulp improved except tear index. Therefore, the AS-AQ pulping process can be considered as ideal for manufacturing of paper grades like greaseproof, glassine, and high-quality writing and printing paper.