Volume 5 Issue 4
- Researchpp 2681-2689Wang, Q., Chen, K., Li, J., Liu, S., and Wang, Z. (2010). "A rapid method for determination of silicon content in black liquor by UV spectroscopy," BioRes. 5(4), 2681-2689.AbstractPDFThis paper describes the development of a simple UV spectroscopic method for determination of silicon content in black liquor. The method is based on the fact that Si (IV) can react with ammonium molybdate to form Si-Mo heterophony acid in an acidic condition (pH=4). The absorption peak of α-Si-Mo heterophony acid is 340 nm. To avoid the compensation of the instrument, 360 nm is used for spectroscopic quantification. A certain time (20 min) for the reaction is necessary. Moreover, it was discovered that 480 nm could be used to develop a dual-wavelength method to account for the spectral interference from dissolved lignin in black liquor. This method is simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate, and has the potential for on-line applications.
- Researchpp 2690-2701Ozkaya, K., Burdurlu, E., Ilce, A. C., and Ciritcioglu, H. H. (2010). "Diagonal tensile strength of an oriented strand-board (OSB) frame with dovetail corner joint," BioRes. 5(4), 2690-2701.AbstractPDFIt was aimed in this study to determine the effect of the number of joints in frames produced from Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and of the type of adhesive on the diagonal tensile strength (DTS) of the frame. With this objective, a total of 152 specimens were prepared from OSB in accordance with the principles in the EN 2470 test standard. The diagonal tensile test was applied to the specimens in the universal test equipment in accordance with ASTM-D 1037. According to the statistical analysis of the data obtained from the tests, the number of dovetail joints and the type of adhesive had significant effects on the DTS. The highest DTS (0.117 N/mm2) was obtained in the specimens with a single dovetail joint and bonded with the PVAc adhesive. This alternative was followed by the specimens with a double dovetail joint bonded with the PVAc adhesive (0.078 N/mm2) and the specimens with a single dovetail joint bonded with the PU adhesive (0.073 N/mm2). The lowest DTS occurred in the specimens with single and double joints without adhesive. According to these results, adhesive should definitely be used in the corner joining of the dovetail joints, and the single dovetail joint joining type bonded with PVAc adhesive is preferred.
- Researchpp 2702-2719Allix, J., Beneventi, D., Zeno, E., and Nortier, P. (2010). "Flotation de-inking of 50% ONP/50% OMG recovered papers mixtures using nonionic surfactant, soap, and surfactant/soap blends," BioRes. 5(4), 2702-2719.AbstractPDFA laboratory flotation column equipped with Venturi aerators and an adjustable froth removal system was used to study the effect of calcium soap and a mixture of calcium soap/alkyl phenol ethoxylate surfactant on ink and fibres transfer during flotation de-inking of a 50% old newprint (ONP) / 50% old magazines (OMG) recovered papers mixture. Mass transport phenomena determining the yield of the flotation process were interpreted using model equations describing particle removal in terms of flotation, entrainment, and drainage in the froth. A decrease in the ink and mineral fillers flotation rate constant, drainage through the froth, and in fibre entrainment was observed when increasing the surfactant concentration. These trends were consistent with the typical dispersing action of the studied nonionic surfactant. An opposite effect on ink and fillers was observed when using calcium soap alone, and the increase in the flotation rate constant and drainage through the froth were consistent with the collecting and defoaming action of the calcium soap. Moreover, fibre entrainment decreased when increasing the soap concentration. The study of the surfactant/soap mixture highlighted the absence of synergy between the calcium soap and the surfactant.
- Researchpp 2720-2737Abdul Khalil, H. P. S., Bhat, I. H., and Awang, K. B. (2010). "Preliminary study on enhanced properties and biological resistance of chemically modified Acacia spp.," BioRes. 5(4), 2720-2737.AbstractPDF
A preliminary experimental study was carried out to examine the ability of a chemically modified Acacia spp. to resist biodegradation. The modifications of Acacia mangium and Acacia hybridwere carried out by propionic anhydride and succinic anhydride in the presence of sodium formate as a catalyst. The treated samples were found resistant to microbial attack, while the untreated ones were damaged on 12 months exposure to a soil burial. The appearance grading, mass loss, mechanical properties, and scanning electron microscopy results revealed that chemical modification enhances the resistance of Acacia mangium and Acacia hybrid wood species to biodegradation.
- Researchpp 2738-2750Popil, R. E. (2010). "High stiffness surface coating optimization through starch encapsulation of platy kaolin," BioRes. 5(4), 2738-2750.AbstractPDFModified fillers consisting of kaolin particles encapsulated by starch have recently been demonstrated in mill trials to achieve significant filler loading levels without accompanying strength losses. In this work, laboratory experiments were conducted to explore the potential advantages of using starch-treated pigment for strength increases by application of surface coating. It is found that a platy clay coating will produce a higher increase in strength per unit weight of application compared to a fine clay, and more-so if the clay is encapsulated in starch. Starch encapsulation of clay produces a greater increase in strength than an equivalent weight proportion addition of starch to a kaolin formulation blend. The observations and measurements of changes in various physical properties of the coated samples are explained by a proportionate loss of void volume in the coating from the encapsulation process and the increase of stress transfer through introduction of higher platelet aspect ratio.
- Researchpp 2751-2764Bäckström, M., and Hammar, L.-A. (2010). "The influence of the counter-ions to the charged groups on the refinability of never-dried bleached pulps," BioRes. 5(4), 2751-2764.AbstractPDFRefining of bleached hardwood pulps and bleached softwood pulps having different counter-ions to the charged groups within the fibres was studied. The results show that an energy reduction of 50% for the hardwood pulps and 20% for the softwood pulp can be achieved if the fibres are converted into the Na+-form prior to refining. The results also show that the amount of charged groups in the fibres is important for the refinability, which explains why the refining efficiency is much lower for bleached softwood fibres, which have a much smaller amount of charged groups than the bleached hardwood pulp.
- Reviewpp 2765-2807Rani, M., Agarwal, A., and Negi, Y. S. (2010). "Review: Chitosan based hydrogel polymeric beads - As drug delivery system," BioRes. 5(4), page #s pending completion of issue.AbstractPDFChitosan obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin is a non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable natural polymer. Chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads have been extensively studied as micro- or nano-particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, where they have shown promise for drug delivery as a result of their controlled and sustained release properties, as well as biocompatibility with tissue and cells. To introduce desired properties and enlarge the scope of the potential applications of chitosan, graft copolymerization with natural or synthetic polymers on it has been carried out, and also, various chitosan derivatives have been utilized to form beads. The desired kinetics, duration, and rate of drug release up to therapeutical level from polymeric beads are limited by specific conditions such as beads material and their composition, bead preparation method, amount of drug loading, drug solubility, and drug polymer interaction. The present review summarizes most of the available reports about compositional and structural effects of chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads on swelling, drug loading, and releasing properties. From the studies reviewed it is concluded that chitosan-based hydrogel polymeric beads are promising drug delivery systems.
- Reviewpp 2808-2854Hubbe, M. A., Nazhad, M., and Sánchez, C. (2010). "Composting as a way to convert cellulosic biomass and organic waste into high-value soil amendments: A review," BioRes. 5(4), 2808-2854.AbstractPDFPlant-derived cellulosic materials play a critical role when organic wastes are composted to produce a beneficial amendment for topsoil. This review article considers publications dealing with the science of composting, emphasizing ways in which the cellulosic and lignin components of the composted material influence both the process and the product. Cellulose has been described as a main source of energy to drive the biological transformations and the consequent temperature rise and chemical changes that are associated with composting. Lignin can be viewed as a main starting material for the formation of humus, the recalcitrant organic matter that provides the water-holding, ion exchange, and bulking capabilities that can contribute greatly to soil health and productivity. Lignocellulosic materials also contribute to air permeability, bulking, and water retention during the composting process. Critical variables for successful composting include the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, the nature of the cellulosic component, particle size, bed size and format, moisture, pH, aeration, temperature, and time. Composting can help to address solid waste problems and provides a sustainable way to enhance soil fertility.