Volume 6 Issue 1
- Editorialpp 1-2Wang, Q., Wu, Y., and Zhu, S. (2011). "Use of ionic liquids for improvement of cellulosic ethanol production," BioRes. 6(1), 1-2.AbstractArticlePDF
Cellulosic ethanol production has drawn much attention in recent years. However, there remain significant technical challenges before such production can be considered as economically feasible at an industrial scale. Among them, the efficient conversion of carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars is one of the most challenging technical difficulties in cellulosic ethanol production. Use of ionic liquids has opened new avenues to solve this problem by two different pathways. One is pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using ionic liquids to increase its enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. The other is to transform the hydrolysis process of lignocellulosic biomass from a heterogeneous reaction system to a homogeneous one by dissolving it into ionic liquids, thus improving its hydrolysis efficiency.
- Researchpp 3-21Sánchez, R., Ferrer, A., Serrano, L., Toledano, A., Labidi, J., and Rodríguez, A. (2011). "Hesperaloe funifera as a raw material for integral utilization of its components," BioRes. 6(1), 3-21.AbstractArticlePDF
Hesperaloe funifera was characterizedin terms of its contents of holocellulose, α-cellulose, and lignin (74.1, 52.3, and 7.9%, respectively). Also, an experimental factor design was used to examine the influence of operational variables in the diethanolamine pulping of this material (viz. diethanolamine concentration (50-80%), cooking temperature (155-185 ºC), and time (30-90 minutes)) on the contents of holocellulose, α-cellulose, and lignin, as well as the yield, kappa number, and viscosity of the resulting pulps, and also on the brightness, tensile index, stretch, burst index, and tear index of paper sheets made from it. The predictions for these dependent variables departed by less than 1, 7, 6, 2, 2, 4, 15, 11, 12, 10, and 37% from their respective experimental values. Black liquors obtained from the pulping runs were characterized by determining pH, density, TDS, (total dissolved solids), MI (inorganic matter), MO (organic matter), and lignin content; lignin samples were characterized by different techniques (FTIR and TGA). Finally, the black liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases.
- Researchpp 22-33Mahdavi, M., Ahmad, M. B., Haron, M. J., and Rahman, M. Z. A. (2011). "Adsorption of Cr(III) from aqueous solutions by polyacrylamide-grafted rubberwood fibre: Kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies," BioRes. 6(1), 22-33.AbstractArticlePDF
Cr(III) ions were adsorbed onto polyacrylamide-grafted rubberwood fibre, and effects of aqueous conditions were evaluated. The adsorbent was prepared via graft copolymerization of acrylamide (Am) onto rubberwood fibre (RWF), using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the formation of PAm-g-RWF. Various variables affecting the adsorption capacity such as the pH of the solution, adsorption time, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were investigated. The Cr(III) was up to 92% removed by PAm-g-RWF from an initial concentration of 10 mg/L at pH 5.0. Kinetic data fitted very well to a pseudo-second-order rate expression and less well to a pseudo-first-order equation. The equilibrium parameters for adsorption isotherms of the metal ions on the grafted fibre were obtained using Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the Langmuir model was found to be in better correlation with the experimental data with a maximum adsorption capacity of 18.24 mg/g. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔH°), free energy change (ΔG°), and entropy change (ΔS°) were calculated; the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic.
- Researchpp 34-47Badger, P., Badger, S., Puettmann, M., Steele, P., and Cooper, J. (2011). "Techno-economic analysis: Preliminary assessment of pyrolysis oil production costs and material energy balance associated with a transportable fast pyrolysis system," BioRes. 6(1), 34-47.AbstractArticlePDF
A techno-economic analysis was performed for a 100 dry-ton/day (90,719 kg/day) fast pyrolysis transportable plant. Renewable Oil International® LLC provided the life cycle cost of operating a 100 dry-ton/day fast pyrolysis system using southern pine wood chips as feedstock. Since data was not available from an actual large-scale plant, the study examined data obtained from an actual 15 dry-ton/day pilot plant and from several smaller plants. These data were used to obtain base figures to aid in the development of models to generate scaled-up costs for a larger 100 dry-ton/day facility. Bio-oil represented 60% of mass of product yield. The cost for the bio-oil from fast pyrolysis was valued at $0.94/gal. Energy cost bio-oil and char was valued at $6.35/MMBTU. Costs associated with purchasing feedstocks can drastically influence the final cost of the bio-oil. The assumed cost of feedstocks was $25/wet ton or $50/dry ton. This paper is part of a larger study investigating the economic and environmental impacts for producing bio-oil / biocide wood preservatives.
- Researchpp 48-58Jahan Latibari, A., Hossein, M. A., and Hosseinpour, R. (2011). "Application of alkaline sulfite pulping on corn stalks," BioRes. 6(1), 48-58.AbstractArticlePDF
Alkaline sulfite pulping of corn stalks was investigated to produce supplementary pulp for corrugating board manufacture. Three pulping temperatures (125, 145, and 165°C) and five active alkali charges (10, 12, 14, 16, and 18%) were used. Cooking time at 30 minutes, Na2SO3/ NaOH ratio at 50:50, and liquor to residue ratio of 8:1 were kept constant. The highest total yield (61.9%) was reached applying the treatment combination of 125°C and 10% active alkali, and the lowest total yield (42.5%) was related to 165°C and 16% chemical. The influence of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratios was studied applying different ratios (30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30) at constant time and temperature of 30 minutes and 145°C respectively and 14 and 16% active alkali. Pulping condition; 16% active alkali, 30 minutes time, 145°C pulping temperature and varying ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide were selected for pulp strength evaluation. The results of handsheet evaluation indicated that 16% active alkali, 30 minutes pulping at 145ºC and sodium sulfite/sodium hydroxide ratio of 50:50 is the optimum pulping condition for corn stalks. Tear, tensile, and burst indices and breaking length of this pulp were measured as 10.53 mN.m2g-1, 62.4 N.mg-1, 3.80 kPa.m2g-1, and 6.07 km, respectively.
- Researchpp 59-69Hosseini Hashemi, S. K., and Jahan Latibari, A. (2011). "Evaluation and identification of walnut heartwood extractives for protection of poplar wood," BioRes. 6(1), 59-69.AbstractArticlePDF
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) heartwood extractives were identified and their potential for protection of poplar wood was evaluated. Test specimens were prepared from poplar wood (Populus nigra L.) to meet BS 838:1961 requirements. Samples were impregnated with heartwood extractive solution (1.5, 2.5, and 3.5% w/w in ethanol-toluene), followed by 5 hours vacuum desiccator technique to reach complete saturation. Impregnated specimens were exposed to white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) for 14 weeks according to BS 838:1961 applying the kolle-flask method. The weight loss of samples was determined after exposure to white-rot fungus. The highest weight loss (36.96%) was observed for untreated control samples and the lowest weight loss (30.40%) was measured in samples treated with 1.5% extractives solution. The analyses of the extracts using GC/MS indicated that major constituents are benzoic acid,3,4,5-tri(hydroxyl) and gallic acid (44.57 %). The two toxic components in the heartwood are juglone (5.15 %) and 2,7-dimethylphenantheren (5.81 %).
- Researchpp 70-80Jia, B., Su, L., Han, G., Wang, G., Zhang, J., and Wang, L. (2011). "Adsorption properties of nickel-based magnetic activated carbon prepared by Pd-free electroless plating," BioRes. 6(1), 70-80.AbstractArticlePDF
Nickel-based magnetic activated carbon was synthesized from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The effect of plating solution volume on metallic ratio and adsorption capacity were evaluated. The effect of metallic ratio on specific area, pore volume, and magnetic properties were investigated. The morphologies of activated carbon before and after plating were observed by SEM, and the composition of the layer was analyzed by EDS analysis. The results showed that the metallic ratio was increased with the increase of the plating solution volume. The magnetic activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for methylene blue and a high iodine number. Those values reached 142.5 mg/g and 1035 mg/g, respectively. The specific area and pore volume decreased from 943 m2/g to 859 m2/g and 0.462 ml/g to 0.417 ml/g, respectively. And the layer was more compact and continuous when the metallic ratio reached 16.37 wt.%. In the layer, there was about 97 wt.% nickel and 3 wt.% phosphorus, which indicates that the layer was a low-phosphorus one. At the same time, magnetism was enhanced, making the product suitable for some special applications.
- Researchpp 81-102Belhassen, R., Vilaseca, F., Mutjé, P., and Boufi, S. (2011). "Preparation and properties of starch-based biopolymers modified with difunctional isocyanates," BioRes. 6(1), 81-102.AbstractArticlePDF
The present work reports on the preparation of thermoplastic starch (TPS) modified in situ with a diisocyanate derivative. Evidence of the condensation reaction between the hydroxyl groups of starch and glycerol with the isocyanate function (NCO) was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The evolution of the properties of the ensuing TPS, in term of mechanical properties, microstructure, and water sensitivity, was investigated using tensile mechanical, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and water uptake. The results showed that the addition of isocyanate did not affect the crystallinity of the TPS and slightly reduced the water uptake of the material. The evolution of the mechanical properties with ageing became less pronounced by the addition of the isocyanate as their amount exceeded 4 to 6wt%.
- Researchpp 103-120Kaur, H., Dutt, D., and Tyagi, C. H. (2011). "Optimization of soda pulping process of ligno-cellulosic residues of lemon and sofia grasses produced after steam distillation," BioRes. 6(1), 103-120.AbstractArticlePDF
Sofia (Cymbopogon martini), and lemon (Cymbopogon flexuosus) grasses, are exclusively cultivated for extraction of important lemongrass and palma rosa oils. Lignocellulosic residue (LCR) of sofia and lemon grasses left after steam distillation can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp. Steam distillation mitigates the problem of mass transfer, and facilitates the faster penetration of cooking liquor by leaching out a part of extraneous components. Sofia grass produces a pulp yield of 43.7% of kappa number 20 at an active alkali dose of 14% (as Na2O), maximum cooking temperature of 160 oC and cooking time 90 min. Likewise, lemon grass produces a pulp yield of 41.4% of kappa number 12.5 under the same conditions except temperature (150 oC) by a soda pulping process. Addition of 0.1% AQ at optimum cooking conditions reduces kappa number by 26 and 8% for sofia and lemon grasses with insignificant increase in pulp yield i.e. 0.2 and 0.4% for sofia and lemon grasses, respectively. The mechanical strength properties of lemon grass soda-AQ pulp are better than sofia grass. Bauer-McNett fiber classification further validates that +20 fractions are more (62.63%) in lemon grass than in sofia grass (42.72%).
- Researchpp 121-143Mishra, S. P., Thirree, J., Manent, A.-S., Chabot, B., and Daneault, C. (2011). "Ultrasound-catalyzed TEMPO-mediated oxidation of native cellulose for the production of nanocellulose: Effect of process variables," BioRes. 6(1), 121-143.AbstractArticlePDF
In this study application of ultrasound in oxidizing native cellulose for the production of nanocellulose has been explored for the first time. Bleached hardwood kraft pulp was oxidized with an ultrasound (US) catalyzed 2,2,6,6-tetramethylepiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPO) system (US-TEMPO-system) at five different temperatures – 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45°C and two pH ranges, 8.5-9.0 and 10.0-10.5 – to obtain the optimum reaction conditions. The reaction pH and temperature have significant effect on the kinetics of the formation of carboxylate in the oxidized pulps and produce depolymerization at temperatures greater than 25°C. Formation of carboxylate on the cellulose chain is directly proportional to the NaBr concentration. The pulp oxidized by the US-TEMPO-system at 25°C had 10-15% more carboxyls and showed a ca. 10% increase in the nanocellulose yield when compared to the TEMPO-system without sono-catalysis.