NC State
  • Editorialpp Hill, C. A. S. (2011). "Wood modification: An update," BioRes. 6(2), 918-919.AbstractPDF
    Wood modification is a generic term describing the application of chemical, physical, or biological methods to alter the properties of the material. The aim is to get better performance from the wood, resulting in improvements in dimensional stability, decay resistance, weathering resistance, etc. It is essential that the modified wood is non-toxic in service and that disposal at the end of life does not result in the generation of any toxic residues. Over the past five years there have been significant developments in wood modification technologies, especially in the commercial sector. This technology is here to stay.
  • Editorialpp 920-926Lundquist, K., and Parkås, J. (2011). "Different types of phenolic units in lignins," BioRes. 6(2), 920-926.AbstractPDF
    The influence of cross-linking and branching on the number of interconnections between lignin units and the number of end groups (phenolic and non-phenolic) in the lignin molecules is discussed. Branching results in an increased number of end groups. It appears from an evaluation of the literature that p-hydroxyphenylpropane units are phenolic to a larger extent than guaiacylpropane units and that such units in turn are phenolic to a larger extent than syringylpropane units. It is proposed that this is related to the relative oxidation potentials of the lignin units. Guaiacylpropane units C-substituted in the 6-position are phenolic to a large extent. Alternative explanations for this are presented.
  • Editorialpp 927-935Kord, B., and Kord, B. (2011). "Heavy metal levels in pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) tree barks as indicators of atmospheric pollution," BioRes. 6(2), 927-935.AbstractPDF
    Bio-monitoring of air quality in TehranCity was investigated by analyzing 36 pine tree (Pinus eldarica Medw.) barks. The samples were taken from different locations with different degrees of metal pollution (urban, industrial, highway, and control sites). Then, the concentrations of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that the highest and lowest metal concentrations were found in the heavy traffic sites and the control site, respectively. Lead content was found to be the highest in high traffic density areas. The industrial part of the city was characterized by high Zn, Cr, and Ni contents. Variation in heavy metal concentrations between sites was observed and attributed to differences in traffic density and anthropogenic activities. The research also confirms the suitability of Pinus eldarica Medw barks as a suitable bio-indicator of aerial fallout of heavy metals.
  • Researchpp 936-949Yu, X., Zhang, G., Xie, C., Yu, Y., Cheng, T., and Zhou, Q. (2011). "Equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies of hazardous dye neutral red biosorption by spent corncob substrate," BioRes. 6(2), 936-949.AbstractPDF
    This study focuses on the possible use of spent corncob substrate (SCS), an agricultural waste utilized after the cultivation of white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, to adsorb the hazardous dye Neutral Red (NR) from aqueous solutions. Natural SCS was initially characterized by using a combination of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques. A batch adsorption study was carried out with varied solution pH, adsorption time, temperature, and initial NR concentration. It was found that NR uptake was favorable over a pH range of 4.0 to 7.0, and the equilibrium adsorption capacity can be reached within about 180 min. The biosorption data were also calculated by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity was 139.1, 140.0, and 143.3 mg g-1 at 20, 30, and 40 °C, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The study highlighted a new pathway to develop potential low-cost biosorbent for the removal of dye pollutants from wastewater.
  • Researchpp 950-960Nosbi, N., Akil, H. M., Mohd Ishak, Z. A., and Abu Baker, A. (2011). "Behavior of kenaf fibers after immersion in several water conditions," BioRes. 6(2), 950-960.AbstractPDF
    Behaviors of kenaf fibers after long-term immersion under several environmental water conditions were studied. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing kenaf fibers in distilled water, sea water (pH 8.4), and acidic solution (pH 3) at room temperature for 140 days. The test results indicated significant differences among the kenaf fibers immersed in different environmental conditions, with kenaf fiber immersed in sea water exhibiting the highest level of water absorption, whereas kenaf fiber immersed in acidic solution showed the lowest water absorption values. The tensile strength of the immersed kenaf fibers decreased with increasing immersion time, implying degradation of the fiber. Investigation on the microstructure of immersed kenaf fibers using SEM reveal the degradation of the kenaf fiber with the development of micro-cracks and increased surface roughness of the fiber.
  • Researchpp 961-970Pervaiz, M., and Sain, M. (2011). "Protein extraction from secondary sludge of paper mill wastewater and its utilization as a wood adhesive," BioRes. 6(2), 961-970.AbstractPDF
    In this study, secondary sludge (SS) from a kraft paper mill was used as a source of biomass to recover protein and investigate its potential use as a wood adhesive. The process of protein recovery involved disruption of the floc structure in alkaline medium to disintegrate and release intercellular contents into the aqueous phase followed by separation of soluble protein. Finally, the soluble protein was subjected to low pH precipitation and the pelletized sludge protein, referred to as recovered sludge protein (RSP) was tested for crude protein, moisture, and other contents. A significant process yield of 90% in terms of precipitation of soluble protein from disintegrated sludge was estimated through calorimetric studies, whereas an overall material balance confirmed a RSP yield of up to 23% based on total suspended solids of raw sludge. The RSP containing 30% crude protein was used as a wood adhesive and its adhesion performance was compared with soy protein isolate (SPI) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin. The testing of plywood lap joints has shown up to 41% shear strength level of RSP adhesive compared to PF. This work demonstrates the technical feasibility and potential of SS as a biomass resource to develop eco-friendly adhesives for wood composite applications.
  • Researchpp 971-986García, J. C., Zamudio, M. A. M., Pérez, A., Feria, M. J., Gomide, J. L., Colodette, J. L., and López, F. (2011). "Soda-AQ pulping of Paulownia wood after hydrolysis treatment," BioRes. 6(2), 971-986.AbstractPDF
    A trihybrid clone of Paulownia fortunei x tormentosa x elongata was used for pulp and paper production using the soda-anthraquinone (AQ) process, comparing the results with those from Paulownia fortunei. An autohydrolysis process had been previously carried out on this raw material. A composite central experimental design and a multiple regression were used for modeling and optimizing the process. A valuable liquid phase could be obtained from the autohydrolysis process of Paulownia, trying to minimize cellulose degradation for pulp and paper production. A compromise to maximize the glucan and minimize the xylan contents in the postautohydrolysis solid phase could be achieved at 187.5ºC and 15 minutes. A suitable cellulosic pulp with kappa number ranging from 12.2 to 69.2 and ISO brightness from 18.2 to 30.6% presented better results than those from other studies. Regarding handsheets physical properties (tensile index 37.3 N·m/g ) and viscosity (848 cm3/g), significant improvements could be obtained when compared with previous results of a similar process using Paulownia fortunei or Paulownia elongata.
  • Researchpp 987-1018Dogu, D., Kose, C., Kartal, S. N., and Erdin, N. (2011). "Wood identification of wooden marine piles from the ancient Byzantine port of Eleutherius/ Theodosius," BioRes. 6(2), 987-1018.AbstractPDF
    The purpose of this study was to identify the wood species of the marine and filling piles obtained from the ancient Byzantine port of Eleutherius/ Theodosius, Istanbul, Turkey. Anatomical descriptions and identifications of 12 marine and 4 filling piles were performed by microscopic evaluations. In the study, Castanea sativa Mill., Quercus ithaburensis Decne., Quercus pontica C. Koch., and Cupressus sempervirens L. species were identified. No precise identifications were completed for only six samples at the species level; however, those samples showed significant similarity to Quercus spp. and Fagus spp. It was concluded that the economically viable supply of wood was more appropriate than obtaining it from nearby regions. The people living in ancient times had solid knowledge and experience on the utilization of wood species.
  • Researchpp 1019-1028Lal, M., Dutt, D., Tyagi, C. H., Kaur, H., and Kumar, A. (2011). "Bio-conventional bleaching of kraft-AQ pulp of A. cadamba by crude xylanases from Coprinellus disseminatus MLK-03 and effect of residual enzyme on effluent load," BioRes. 6(2), 1019-1028.AbstractPDF
    A new thermo-alkali-tolerant crude xylanase from Coprinellus disseminatus decreased kappa number by 34.38% and improved brightness and viscosity by 1.6 and 6.47% respectively after XE1-stage during prebleaching of Anthocephalus cadamba kraft-AQ pulp. At 2.4% chlorine demand, crude xylanase in a XECEHH (X= enzymatic prebleaching stage, E= extraction stage, C= chlorination stage, H= hypochlorite stage) bleaching sequence improved pulp brightness, tensile index, burst index, and double fold numbers by 3.66%, 4.78%, 6.38%, and 11.11%, respectively with a reduction in viscosity (10.59%) and tear index (10.77%) compared to the control. Combined bleach effluent of the XECEHH sequence mitigated adsorable organic halides (AOX) by 21% and increased chemical oxygen demand (COD), bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD), and colour by 67.18%, 84.78%, and 97.53%, respectively, compared to the control. Residual enzymes that entered during enzymatic prebleaching stage decreased AOX, COD, BOD, and colour of combined effluent of the XECEHH bleaching sequence progressively and on 6th day, and these were reduced by 23.78%, 0.04%, 15.00%, and 0.61%, respectively, compared to the control.
  • Researchpp 1029-1042Guo, W.-J., Wang, Y., Huang, M-Z., Wan, J.-Q., and Ma, Y.-W. (2011). "An investigation of the variation of pore structure in Eucalyptus fibre during recycling," BioRes. 6(2), 1029-1042.AbstractPDF
    Variation in the pore structure of eucalyptus fibre during recycling was investigated using low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fractal geometry. The Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the fibre fell to 55.1% of the original value after the first cycle, and to 49.0% after the second cycle, ultimately declining to 35.0% after the fourth. The Barret-Joyner- Halenda (BJH) adsorption cumulative pore volume fell to 38.4% of the original by the fourth. After four cycles, the average pore diameter fell to 82% of the original. AFM tests showed that the pore structure in fibre expressed high self-similarity in statistics, and the pore structure in the fibre could be regarded as a fractal. Fractal geometry analysis of the results showed that the fractal dimension of eucalyptus virgin fibre is 2.954. With the number of process cycles increasing, the fractal dimension fell to a minimum of 2.886 after four cycles. The water retention value (WRV) of the fibre was proportional to the fractal dimension and the crystallinity of fibre.