NC State
  • Researchpp 2118-2124Gündüz, G., Yapıcı, F., Özçifçi, A., and Kalaycıoğlu, H. (2011). "The effects of adhesive ratio and pressure time on some properties of oriented strand board," BioRes. 6(2), 2118-2124.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of adhesive ratio and pressure time on thickness swelling (TS), internal bond (IB), modulus of rupture (MOR), and modulus of elasticity (MOE) properties of oriented strand board (OSB). For this purpose, 80 mm long strands made of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were bonded with phenol-formaldehyde resin at three different ratios (3, 4.5, and 6%) to produce three-layer cross-aligned OSBs. Strands used for the production of OSB panels were made up 40% of core layer and 60% of outer layers. The panels were pressed for three different press times, from 3, 5, to 7 minutes, under 0.4 MPa pressure, aiming for a target density of 0.70 g/cm3. TS, IB, MOR, and MOE properties of OSB panels were evaluated according to the standards (TSE EN 117-319-310). Results showed that MOR and MOE values were changed in the ranges 25.31 to 42.27 N/mm2, and 2848.90 to 6545.63 N/mm2, respectively. Also, the results showed that as adhesive ratio and pressure time increased, the TS, MOR, and MOE values increased too.

  • Researchpp 2125-2134Horvath, B., Peralta, P., Frazier, C., and Peszlen, I. (2011). "Thermal softening of transgenic aspen," BioRes. 6(2), 2125-2134.AbstractArticlePDF

    Studies on the softening behavior of in situ lignin of normal wood in a given species have never been performed before due to the relatively narrow lignin content and lignin structural variation within one species. Using transgenic trees with different levels of lignin content and/or syringyl to guaiacyl propane (S/G) ratio helped us to overcome this problem. Submersion three-point bending and parallel-plate compression-torsion dynamic mechanical analyses were conducted on one-year-old wild type and transgenic aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). The different genetic modifications included groups with reduced lignin content, increased S/G ratio, and both reduced lignin content and increased S/G ratio. Measurements with both methods revealed a statistically significant decrease in glass transition temperature in the reduced-lignin genetic group compared to the wild-type. Increase in the S/G ratio did not affect the thermo-mechanical properties; these results contradict claims that increasing the methoxyl groups would reduce lignin cross-linking and the glass transition temperature.

  • Researchpp 2135-2144de Palacios, P., Esteban, L. G., García Fernández, F., García-Iruela, A., González-Adrados, J. R., and Conde, M. (2011). "Comparative study of the 35 ºC sorption isotherms of cork stripped from the tree in 1968 and 2006," BioRes. 6(2), 2135-2144.AbstractArticlePDF

    A study was made of the hygroscopicity of two samples of cork with the same characteristics, taken from trees of the same age but with a 38-year gap between debarking. This was achieved by plotting the 35ºC sorption-desorption isotherms and fitting them using the GAB model. Infrared spectra were used to determine any chemical changes in the cell wall. Extended exposure to controlled relative humidity and temperature did not cause hygroscopic changes to the cork. The equilibrium moisture content values were not significantly different in the two samples, but the monolayer saturation moisture content values were significantly lower in the older cork. This may be due to partial saturation of the moisture sorptive sites in the cell wall over time.

  • Researchpp 2145-2160Kiuru, J., Sievänen, J., Tsitko, I., Pajari, H., and Tukiainen, P. (2011). "A new dual biocide concept for fine papermaking," BioRes. 6(2), 2145-2160.AbstractArticlePDF

    Electrochemical generation of oxidants was studied to find new solutions to control microbial contamination at paper mills. Laboratory and semi-pilot trials using a Wet End Simulator indicated that the combination of an electrochemically produced halogen-containing oxidant together with sodium percarbonate was an efficient new biocide concept, especially in fine papermaking. Addition of sodium percarbonate considerably reduced the need for halogen-containing biocides, thus lessening risk of corrosion. The trials with samples from fine paper machines indicated that the new concept required halogenated biocides to be dosed first, and the time delay between additions of biocide needed to be sufficient to ensure that no residual halogen was left when sodium percarbonate was added. Electrochemical generation enables on-site biocide production, which decreases transportation cost, risk associated with storage of hazardous chemicals, and biocide lost due to degradation. Thus, on-site generation of biocides together with potential reduction in amount of halogen containing oxidants make this dual concept economically attractive and environmentally positive.

  • Reviewpp 2161-2287Hubbe, M. A., Hasan, S. H., and Ducoste, J. J. (2011). "Cellulosic substrates for removal of pollutants from aqueous systems: A review. 1. Metals," BioRes. 6(2), 2161-2287.AbstractArticlePDF

    Recent years have seen explosive growth in research concerning the use of cellulosic materials, either in their as-recieved state or as modified products, for the removal of heavy metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions. Despite highly promising reports of progress in this area, important questions remain. For instance, it has not been clearly established whether knowledge about the composition and structure of the bioadsorbent raw material is equally important to its availability at its point of use. Various physical and chemical modifications of biomass have been shown to boost the ability of the cellulose-based material to bind various metal ions. Systems of data analysis and mechanistic models are described. There is a continuing need to explain the mechanisms of these approaches and to determine the most effective treatments. Finally, the article probes areas where more research is urgently needed. For example, life cycle analysis studies are needed, comparing the use of renewable biosorbents vs. conventional means of removing toxic metal ions from water.