Volume 7 Issue 1
- Researchpp 1294-1309Jones, S. M., van Dyk, J. S., and Pletschke, B. I. (2012). "Bacillus subtilis SJ01 produces hemicellulose degrading multi-enzyme complexes," BioRes. 7(1), 1294-1309.AbstractArticlePDF
Cellulose and hemicellulose account for a large portion of the world’s plant biomass. In nature, these polysaccharides are intertwined, forming complex materials that require multiple enzymes to degrade them. Multi-enzyme complexes (MECs) consist of a number of enzymes working in close proximity and synergistically to degrade complex substrates with higher efficiency than individual enzymes. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterise a (hemi-) cellulolytic MEC from the aerobic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis SJ01, using ultrafiltration followed by size-exclusion chromatography on a Sephacryl S-400 column. Two MECs, C1 and C2 of 371 and 267 kDa, respectively, were purified, consisting of 16 and 18 subunits, respectively, five of which degraded birchwood and oat spelt xylan. The MECs degraded xylan substrates (C1: 0.24 U/mg, C2: 0.14 U/mg birchwood xylan) with higher efficiency than amorphous cellulose substrates (C1: 0.002 U/mg, C2: 0.01 U/mg carboxymethyl cellulose – CMC). Low or no binding to insoluble substrates indicated that the MECs lacked some of the features characteristic of cellulosomes. The significance of this study lies in the discovery of MECs that differ structurally from cellulosomes that can hydrolyse substrates with high hemicellulose content.
- Researchpp 1310-1323López, J. P., Mutjé, P., Pèlach, M. À., El Mansouri, N.-E., Boufi, S., and Vilaseca, F. (2012). "Analysis of the tensile modulus of polypropylene composites reinforced with stone groundwood fibers," BioRes. 7(1), 1310-1323.AbstractArticlePDF
One of the most relevant properties of composite materials to be considered is stiffness. Fiberglass has been used traditionally as a fibrous reinforcing element when stiff materials are required. However, natural fibers are been exploited as replacements for synthetic fibers to satisfy environmental concerns. Among the different natural fibers, wood fibers show the combination of relatively high aspect ratio, good specific stiffness and strength, low density, low cost, and less variability than other natural fibers of such those from annual crops. In this work, composites from polypropylene and stone groundwood fibers from softwood were prepared and mechanically characterized under tensile loads. The Young’s moduli of the ensuing composites were analyzed and their micromechanics aspects evaluated. The reinforcing effect of stone groundwood fibers was compared to that of conventional reinforcement such fiberglass. The Halpin-Tsai model with the modification proposed by Tsai-Pagano accounted fairly for the behavior of PP composites reinforced with stone groundwood fibers. It was also demonstrated that the aspect ratio of the reinforcement plays a role in the Young’s modulus of injection molded specimens.
- Researchpp 1324-1336Gao, Y., Qin, M., Yu, H., and Zhang, F. (2012). "Effect of heat-dispersing on stickies and their removal in post-flotation," BioRes. 7(1), 1324-1336.AbstractArticlePDF
The effect of heat-dispersing on sticky substances in a deinking pulping line was studied under different conditions including varying temperature, disc clearance, and pulp consistency. Sticky substances were quantitatively investigated before and after the heat-dispersing, and categorized into macro-, mini-, and micro-stickies as well as dissolved and colloidal substances. Meanwhile, their extents of removal in post-flotation were evaluated. The results showed that raising temperature, reducing disc clearance, or increasing pulp consistency significantly improved the dispersion of sticky particles, an effect that will be beneficial to their removal in the subsequent flotation process. Under temperature of 100 °C, disc clearance of 0.3 mm, and pulp consistency of 30%, macro- and mini-stickies decreased by 92% and 83%, respectively. Due to being dispersed to smaller sizes, removals of mini- and micro-stickies were enhanced in post-flotation to 25-26% and 68-70%, respectively. Only a small amount of dissolved and colloidal substances was removed in flotation.
- Researchpp 1337-1351Yoshihara, H. (2012). "Influence of the specimen depth to length ratio and lamination construction on Young's modulus and in-plane shear modulus of plywood measured by flexural vibration," BioRes. 7(1), 1337-1351.AbstractArticlePDF
In this study, the Young’s modulus and the in-plane shear modulus of 3-, 5-, and, 7-ply Lauan wood (Shorea sp.) were determined by conducting a flexural vibration test with various specimen depth to length ratios and performing a subsequent finite element analysis (FEA). The length and depth directions of the specimen used for the vibration test coincided with the length/width and width/length directions of the plywood panel. The results obtained from the experiment and FEA revealed that the influence of specimen configuration and lamination construction did not significantly affect the measurement of the Young’s modulus. However, the results suggested that the in-plane shear modulus decreased as the depth to length ratio of the specimen decreased. The FEA result suggested that this decreasing tendency is more pronounced as the ply number decreases and the thickness of the plywood increases. A statistical analysis on the experimental results suggested that the length of the specimen must be less than 10 times the depth to reduce the influence of specimen configuration on the measured value of the in-plane shear modulus.
- Researchpp 1352-1365Hashim, R., Wan Nadhari, W. N. A., Sulaiman, O., Sato, M., Hiziroglu, S., Kawamura, F., Sugimoto, T., Seng, T. G., and Tanaka, R. (2012). "Properties of binderless particleboard panels manufactured from oil palm biomass," BioRes. 7(1), 1352-1365.AbstractArticlePDF
The objective of the study was to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboard panels manufactured from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) biomass without using any adhesives. Different parts of oil palm, including the core and mid sections of trunks, fronds, bark, and leaves, were used to make the panels with an average target density of 0.80g/cm3. Based on the test results, it seems that panels made from bark and leaves did not have satisfactory strength and dimensional stability. However, the panels having particles from the core portion of the trunks exhibited the highest modulus of rupture and internal bond strength but lowest in thickness swelling and water absorption values among the samples. The panels made with particles of mid-section of trunks and fronds followed the samples having core portion trunks material. Three types of raw material, namely fronds, mid-, and core-parts of the trunks appeared as though they could have potential to manufacture particleboard panels with acceptable properties based on requirements stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Similar to the above findings, surface quality of the samples were also found acceptable for the panels made from three types of particles. Based on the results of this work, oil palm in the form of biomass could be considered as an environmentally friendly alternative raw material to manufacture binderless particleboard panels.
- Reviewpp 1366-1382Huber, P., and Carré, B. (2012). "Decolorization of process waters in deinking mills and similar applications: A review," BioRes. 7(1), 1366-1382AbstractArticlePDF
Process waters in deinking mills often feature a strong coloration, due to dyes and pigments released from the recovered paper. This can usually be remediated by pulp bleaching treatment with appropriate chemicals. However, the red shade (from rhodamine dye) is resistant to conventional bleaching treatments. This largely limits the use of deinked pulp in white paper grades. In this review, the available technologies for process water decolorization are discussed (chemical methods, physico-chemical methods and biological treatments). Ozonation of the process water appears to be the most promising technique for decolorization of process water in deinking mills. Other emerging technologies such as photo-catalytic treatment or mineralization by white-rot fungi (after adsorption on low-cost agricultural residues) should be considered as well.