Volume 8 Issue 2
- Reviewpp 3038-3097Hubbe, M. A., Rojas, O. J., Fingas, M., and Gupta, B. S. (2013). "Cellulosic substrates for removal of pollutants from aqueous systems: A Review. 3. Spilled oil and emulsified organic liquids," BioRes. 8(2), 3038-3097.AbstractArticlePDF
Water-insoluble oils, including crude petroleum and a wide variety of refined organic liquids, can cause major problems if spilled or leaked to aqueous environments. Potential environmental damage may be reduced if the spilled oil is promptly and efficiently removed from the water. This article reviews research that sheds light on the use of cellulose-based materials as sorbents to mitigate effects of oil spills. Encouraging results for oil sorption have been reported when using naturally hydrophobic cellulosic fibers such as unprocessed cotton, kapok, or milkweed seed hair. In addition, a wide assortment of cellulosic materials have been shown to be effective sorbents for hydrocarbon oils, especially in the absence of water, and their performance under water-wet conditions can be enhanced by various pretreatments that render them more hydrophobic. More research is needed on environmentally friendly systems to handle oil-contaminated sorbents after their use; promising approaches include their re-use after regeneration, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, among others. Research is also needed to further develop combined response systems in which biosorption is used along with other spill-response measures, including skimming, demulsification, biodegradation, and the use of booms to limit the spreading of oil slicks.
- Reviewpp 3098-3121Paunonen, S. (2013). "Strength and barrier enhancements of cellophane and cellulose derivative films: A Review," BioRes. 8(2), 3098-3121.AbstractArticlePDF
Cellulose derivatives, i.e. cellulose functionalized in a solvent state with various side groups, are an important source of biomaterials for food packaging. This review considers the following materials: i) cellophane, ii) cellulose acetate, iii) methylcellulose, and iv) carboxymethylcellulose. Mechanical and barrier properties are important for freestanding packaging films as well as for coatings. The potential of the selected cellulose derivatives and cellophane is thus examined from the viewpoint of their tensile properties as well as their moisture and oxygen barrier properties. The capacity of microcrystalline cellulose and nano-sized celluloses to reinforce the films and to help impede gas diffusion is examined for microfibrillar celluloses, nanocrystalline celluloses, and whiskers. Very good oxygen barrier properties have been reported for cellophane. Nanocellulose fillers have regularly been shown to enhance the tensile properties of several cellulose derivatives, but the effects on the water vapor permeability (WVP) have been studied less often.
- Reviewpp 3122-3135Naylor, A., and Hackney, P. (2013). "A review of wood machining literature with a special focus on sawing," BioRes. 8(2), 3122-3135.AbstractArticlePDF
In this review, fundamental wood machining research is evaluated to determine the general cutting mechanics of simple, orthogonal, and oblique cutting tools. Simple tool force trends and chip formation characteristics are indentified here, along with the cause and effects of tool wear. In addition to this, specific methods of evaluating sawing processes have been investigated. These include the use of piezoelectric dynamometers to record tool forces and high speed photography to evaluate chip formation. Furthermore, regression analysis has been previously used to identify tool force trends with respect to both tooth geometry parameters and work-piece properties. This review has identified the original findings of previous research. This will allow for further original research to be conducted.
- Reviewpp 3136-3156Dungani, R., Jawaid, M., Abdul Khalil, H. P. S., Jasni, Aprilia, S., Hakeem, K. R., Hartati, S., and Islam, M. N. (2013). "A review on quality enhancement of oil palm trunk waste by resin impregnation: Future materials," BioRes. 8(2), 3136-3156.AbstractArticlePDF
Oil palm trunk (OPT) is a solid waste obtained in large quantities after the felling of oil palm trees and is available year-round. Scientists and industrialists face difficulties in utilizing these solid wastes for different applications due to great variations in their physical and mechanical properties. Because OPT consists of lignocellulosic materials, its cellulosic material is utilized in the production of panel products such as particleboard, medium density fibreboard, mineral-bonded particleboard, block board, and cement board. In order to control the OPT waste, it is essential to consider its alternative utilization inside buildings as lightweight construction materials and furniture. The impregnation of different resins in wood and non-wood materials can improve the quality of the OPT, making it possible to utilize OPT as raw materials for different applications. The enhanced properties and good appearance of impregnated OPT have found use in high-grade furniture and housing materials. In order to further evaluate its potential, this review has been compiled for the detailed study of various properties, characteristics, and applications of OPT.
- Reviewpp 3157-3176Iqbal, H. M. N., Kyazze, G., and Keshavarz, T. (2013). "Advances in the valorization of lignocellulosic materials by biotechnology: An overview," BioRes. 8(2), 3157-3176.AbstractArticlePDF
In view of the worldwide economic and environmental issues associated with the extensive use of petro-chemicals, there has been increasing research interest during the past decade in the value of residual biomass. Because of its renewable nature and abundant availability, residual biomass has attracted considerable attention as an alternate feedstock and potential energy source. To expand the range of natural bio-resources, significant progress related to the lignocellulose bio-technology has been achieved, and researchers have been re-directing their interests to biomass-based fuels, ligninolytic enzymes, chemicals, and biocompatible materials, which can be obtained from a variety of lignocellulosic waste materials. This review article focuses on the potential applications of lignocellulosic materials in biotechnology, including the production of bio-fuels, enzymes, chemicals, the pulp and paper, animal feed, and composites.