1969 Volume 2
Supervisory control of average basis weight and moisture in the machine-direction must be achieved by different control procedures, depending upon the importance of other objectives such as production rate and dimensional stability . Maintenance of close control of refining must be modified, depending upon the number and arrangement of refiners. The control of basis weight, moisture and refining all interact with each other to increase the complexity of the control models required, since the adjustment of a single input variable may influence all three areas of control. Some of the experiences of International Paper’s Southern Kraft Division control group in working with these control areas are described.
Oxfordpp 336Basis Weight Control – Sub-Optimum Approach – Prepared Discussion ContributionAbstractPDF
Automatic basis weight regulation on No. 1 fine paper machine at Empire Paper Mills has been achieved by using a substance gauge at the dry end, connected to a central control digital computer, this computer performing direct digital control (DDC) upon various areas of the papermachine.
Oxfordpp 342–376An Advanced Information System as a Functional Part of a Newsprint MachineAbstractPDF
The paper describes an information system applied to a newsprint machine as a functional addition to the operator’s capabilities . Examples of its use by the operators are given.
The system was designed, as part of an initial machine installation, after the intensive study of the mode of operation of two generally similar machines. The objective was to retain the skilled operator as part of the control system, but to provide him with more information more conveniently displayed to enable better and faster decisions to be made. The stored program system permits the operator to manage the machine on an information by exception basis.
The system is a Bailey 754 with alarm monitoring data display and future arithmetic capability. There are 150 analog inputs, 200 contact closures, 26 speed and draw measurements and 15 integrations. Data acquisition is continuous providing data to the parallel programmed and independently operating subsystems.
The paper examines the various stages in a project to implement control of a papermachine and its associated stock preparation plant using a digital computer. The project is looked at from the initial economic feasibility through to the commissioning and implementation stage.
A general description of the computer system and the control strategy employed is included. Particular mention is made of those aspects of the project not immediately associated with the control of the process, yet making important contributions to the whole system.
Reference is made to the more significant problems faced during the project, giving when possible indication of lessons learned for future applications.
Oxfordpp 410–412Some Results from the Computer Installation at Empire Paper Mills – Prepared Discussion ContributionAbstractPDF
My purpose is to give α brief description ofwhat we have achieved with our computer installation and to draw some comparisons in philosophy with the paper by Cyprus & Attwood.
Almost without exception, process control computer systems have been to some extent development projects. Most have been applied to commercially operated production units, for which the improved control of the process provides adequate financial justification for the computer installation. In such cases, conflict arises between the use of the computer for the basic control of a continuously running process and the development of new programs. One solution is to provide α comprehensive conventional standby control system so that the computer can be taken off line at any time; alternatively, to limit the system to supervisory set point control . This approach is very expensive and there is α tendency for the computer to become purely α research too l, imposed upon α rather unwilling production unit. Another common approach is to use a relatively expensive computer system with backing store and full time-sharing facilities. This second method is justifiable when the process control computer is required to carry out α large amount of off-line work such as scheduling and invoicing, but is unnecessarily expensive if the computer’s principal task is process control.
This paper discusses the current trends in the evolution of hardware for computer control and the implications of these trends for the papermaking industry. This discussion covers, in addition to computer main frames, the development of remote analog signal multiplexing, conversion and digital data transmission, the evolution of graphic displays as operator panel replacements and the elimination of long cable runs from instruments by the use of laser data links.
As an overview of the future, an indepth presentation is given of an integrated papermill computer control hierarchy (of the sort to be expected within five years). In this configuration, the actual process control is performed by a number of freestanding (that is, no special computer room), small (20 in x 20 in x 60 in) computers dedicated to the direct digital control of the process sub-units (for example, grinders, bleaching plant, head box, dryer section and coaters). These first level computers are subservient to a larger foreground/background computer, performing such functions as control parameter optimisation, management information reduction and presentation, as well as on-line optimum production scheduling.
This portion of the paper also includes a discussion of the control techniques and strategies that will be in common use at this date and the additional process variables that will be on computer control (gloss, air permeability, colour and caliper). A part of this discussion covers the future state of the art, which will be approaching the control of the distributed parameter aspects of the process (such as cross-machine moisture and basis weight control).
A digital computer was installed on the Centre Technique du Papier’s experimental machine in order to study the problems involved in the automation of a papermachine.
After a short description of the installation, this paper summarises the work done during the installation phase, in particular, control of the basis weight was designed to go into service as soon as the computer was installed. It uses a control algorithm compensating for the dead time from the point of view of loop stability. The initial results are encouraging.
The same principles will be extended to the control of the dryer section after development of an appropriate model.
Head box control requirements have been reviewed and the equipment required to achieve control has been discussed briefly . In addition, methods that have been used to model the head box successfully are described and discussed from both an analytic and practical point of view. Finally, six head box control schemes varying in complexity from a simple analog level control to a complex decoupled 3 x 3 controller (controlling head box total head, liquid level and flow from the box) are described and fully discussed. The paper is closed by a brief discussion of work that ought to be done in the relatively near future.
The head box on No . 1 papermaking machine at Empire Paper Mills is an Escher Wyss pressurised type, which is run by direct digital control from the digital control computer. Control outputs are to air valves, thin stock by-pass valves and slice.
The head box stock level is maintained at α mean value by the air pressure within. The main stream flow into the head box by α coarse/fine by-pass system under DDC from the main stream magnetic flow meter. The total head now takes up some value as α dependent variable.