NC State
BioResources
  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 1133-1146 P. E. WristSupplementary Remarks on Industrial R & D ManagementAbstractPDF

    In the following remarks I will use the terms “research” or “fundamental research” interchangeably to denote the process of generating new insights or knowledge about the physical world at all levels of sophistication by use of the scientific method. In contrast, I will use the word “development” to cover all activities associated with the application of knowledge for beneficial purposes of a commercial nature. This is in line with Mr. Place who earlier this week suggested that, phrased in the business context, “research” is like creating an asset while “development” is putting that asset to work.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 1109-1131 P. E. WristThe Role of Fundamental Research in Paper-Making: Asking the Important QuestionsAbstractPDF

    About five years ago, signs began appearing that economic growth in the United States was losing its vitality. In an economy as complex as that of the US it is not always easy to distinguish symptoms from causes. Industrial innovation has long been recognised as the engine of the American economy, and it was clear that this loss of power could not be explained simply in terms of OPEC and the rapid rise in the cost of energy. Many measures of the “State of Innovations” have shown signs of a downturn. President Carter initiated a cabinet-level study of the extent to which government regulation might be to blame, and numerous other groups have analysed the extent to which other factors have contributed to the decline.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 1091-1105 L. G. ScheuringManagement of Research and Development in a German Paper CompanyAbstractPDF

    The necessities and possibilities of companies to do research work essentially depend on the supply of raw material, on the market facts, on product grades and production structure, and on the financial means available.

    The implementation of research and development activities of Feldmuhle Aktiengesellschaft with its 8 paper and board mills in Germany, with a capacity of 1.2 million tons, is discussed.

    The paper refers to various aspects of the research organisation, including personnel and the scope of the different functions and their co-ordination within the enterprise. It emphasises the long-term planning of research and development projects, and describes how the costs involved are allocated to the various divisions of the company. Finally, some examples of successful research work are given.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 1079-1087A. MawsonOrganisation Requirements for Innovation and Economic GrowthAbstractPDF

    Innovation, revolutionary change, is a major element of economic growth and brings about changes in productivity, employment and competitiveness, nationally and internationally. The prime requirement for innovation is existing or latent market need. R & D is not a sufficient component in itself to bring about innovation. Fundamental research work is probably most cost-effective if directed towards solving the problems of evolutionary change.

    Revolutionary innovation challenges the established order, changes patterns of work, makes capital plant redundant and sometimes eliminates the whole market for certain products. Generally it involves risks and time-scales far beyond those normally handled in a company. Increasingly it requires large amounts of revenue and capital.

    To overcome these obstacles to innovation requires a strong sense of purpose in an organisation and strong direction of research activity. Given our own industry’s pitiful profit record Government support may be necessary. However, stronger funding of a smaller number of projects should be the aim.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 1005-1011E. SzwarcsztajnResearch in East European CountriesAbstractPDF

    Organisation of research in the paper industry in socialist countries is dealt with, giving data on participation of state owned institutes, universities and mills, on sources of financing, on co-ordination by governmental institutions, and on the percentage of fundamental research.

    Co-operation within the framework of bilateral agreements or of the Council of Mutual Economic Co-operation is discussed, and some examples of such common projects are given. Some achievements in fundamental and applied research are listed. Research centres in eastern and western countries are compared.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 987-1000H. A. PosnerResearch at the Institute of Paper ChemistryAbstractPDF

    The primary missions, Research, Education and Information, of the Institute are discussed. The overall organisation, operation and funding of the Institute are described. The process for developing research priorities and programmes and assessing progress is discussed with emphasis on the benefits of industry-institute interactions. An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of our present mode of operation is presented.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 905-919B. W. BurgessPAPRICAN: A Case History of Co-operative Research and EducationAbstractPDF

    As a result of the foresight, imagination and initiative of a few technical people and executives in the Canadian pulp and paper industry in the early 20’s, the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada was created 56 years ago to serve the industry. Its establishment recognised the fact that, even in those early days, the industry needed research and development, and that it would need to train scientists. Thus, right from the outset, PAPRICAN has had two broad missions:

    1. To do research of importance to the industry:

    2. To train scientists and technical personnel for the industry.

    However, an appreciation of the nature of the Canadian pulp and paper industry is essential to an understanding of the development of PAPRICAN and of its programme.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 897-901D. AttwoodThe World Association of Pulp and Paper-Making Research Institutes (WAPRI)AbstractPDF

    WAPRI exists to provide a forum for discussion between directors of research institutes engaged in research work on the science and technology of the pulp and paper-making and allied industries. It currently comprises 22 members and these are mainly the central research institutes of the western pulp and paper-making world. Non-confidential information is exchanged between the institutes.

    In addition to describing the activities of WAPRI this paper summarises the research activity (in non-confidential areas) of the subscribing institutes and provides information on the management and funding of those institutes.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 893-895A. H. NissanIntroductory Remarks to the Concluding SessionAbstractPDF

    Thank you, Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen.

    Since 1957, when the first of these quadrennial symposia was held, we have been reporting on the fruits of research carried out in our industry. It occurred to the organisers of these conferences that it was time to look not only at the products of research, but also at its process, or processes. This is such an obvious conclusion, it is almost unnecessary to discuss it beyond the bare statement I have just made.

    Yet there are other more subtle reasons why today’s session is particularly timely.

  • 1981
    Cambridge
    pp 879-891D. A. I. GoringSeventh Fundamental Research Symposium Summing UpAbstractPDF

    Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Fellow Researchers.

    Firstly, I must thank the Conference Committee and the British Paper and Board Industry Federation for inviting me to do this important but difficult job.

    There is one advantage in being the summary speaker. I can say anything I like. I have no preprints, no abstracts, not even very much in the way of guidelines. I have complete freedom. All I have to avoid is saying anything bad about my boss, because he’s right there in the audience. So be clear about one thing: the very best talk at this symposium will be that given by Mr. Burgess later on this morning, and I urge you all to listen well.

    So, having said that, I can go on to say something about what has happened here during the last four days.