1981 Volume 2
In this paper we present a historical review of the development of image analysis hardware and describe the types of equipment which are commercially available today. We also discuss probable future trends in the development of automatic image analysis systems. Against this background the problems specific to analysing images of fibres are described and illustrated by experimental results obtained working with phase contrast microscope images of asbestos fibres.
The characteristics of the disturbances affecting the paper web are discussed with particular reference to grammage variation, wet press vibration, and calender barring. Some of the difficulties of investigation are pointed out. It is shown that the usual assumptions of stationarity and linearity may not hold, so that frequency domain analysis must be applied with caution.
The key to any investigation lies in the comparison of corresponding spectral components in signals from different points in the system. Two contrasting approaches are compared and discussed: that adopted in the conventional two channel analysis of random data, and that of considering the interrelationship as a vector function of time. The latter approach, embodied in the Vector Correlator, gives considerable insight into the underlying relationship between the variables. Some practical examples are given.
During the early 1970’s the old experimental paper machine at STFI was left too far behind by technical developments to be of any great use for basic process research. In the mid 1970’s, therefore, the planning began of new equipment at STFI. The aim was to design the experimental system required for a basic process research programme during the period 1980 – 2000.
It has to include all process units involved in recirculating material flows. This means that stock preparation, wire section, press section and backwater system should be included, while drying can be performed off-line.
The wire section should include the two basic twin-wire forming principles as well as a Fourdrinier section. In the wire section it should further be possible to form multi-ply products, either from a multi-ply headbox or from several headboxes. The roll width in the wire section will be 800 mm, which means that headboxes up to 500 mm width can be applied. The press section should avoid open draws and include double felted as well as single-felted nips. To simulate industrial processes running according to modern environmental standards, a filter should be used to recover suspended material from the excess back-water, which could then be re-used for showers, dilution, etc.
The dynamic properties of the FEX System were calculated using computer simulations. As a result it was found that 2 tons of pulp will be needed to run the system into equilibrium. It was decided that the storage capacity in the stock preparation plant should allow the system to be run into equilibrium four times on one batch of pulp.
An experimental paper machine often has to produce more data than paper. The FEX System is therefore heavily instrumented, and the requirements of the different measurements often had a strong impact on the design of the system. A central minicomputer is to administer a number of microcomputers which will do the actual job of process control and data collection and processing, and also automatically start up and shut down the complete system.
Increased use of multi-ply forming and paper-making additives are two important development trends in the paper industry, and extensive research within these areas is planned.
Cambridgepp 829-850Research Problems in Developing Countries Using Non-Woody Fibres, As Seen by UNIDOAbstractPDF
Thank you very much for inviting UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organisation) to attend this conference and for giving our organisation a platform to discuss with you how the pulp and paper research situation in the developing countries might be improved with your help. UNIDO, a member organisation of the United Nations Organisations, is 14 years old and started operations in Vienna on 1 January, 1967. Its mandate, according to the United Nations General Assembly resolution 2152 (XXXI) of 17 November 1,966, is to promote and accelerate the industrialisation of the developing countries.
Cambridgepp 851-859New Insights into Structural Properties of Paper Used in New Marking TechnologiesAbstractPDF
The image quality, paper handling and archival specifications of non-impact printing technologies such as ink jet, electrophotography, thermography, etc. impose special requirements on the substrate. For economic and practical reasons, paper will continue to be the substrate predominantly used. This situation presents new opportunities for the paper industry at a time when traditional markets, such as newsprint, are being eroded by the proliferation of electronically-accessed data bases.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Fellow Researchers.
Firstly, I must thank the Conference Committee and the British Paper and Board Industry Federation for inviting me to do this important but difficult job.
There is one advantage in being the summary speaker. I can say anything I like. I have no preprints, no abstracts, not even very much in the way of guidelines. I have complete freedom. All I have to avoid is saying anything bad about my boss, because he’s right there in the audience. So be clear about one thing: the very best talk at this symposium will be that given by Mr. Burgess later on this morning, and I urge you all to listen well.
So, having said that, I can go on to say something about what has happened here during the last four days.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen.
Since 1957, when the first of these quadrennial symposia was held, we have been reporting on the fruits of research carried out in our industry. It occurred to the organisers of these conferences that it was time to look not only at the products of research, but also at its process, or processes. This is such an obvious conclusion, it is almost unnecessary to discuss it beyond the bare statement I have just made.
Yet there are other more subtle reasons why today’s session is particularly timely.
Cambridgepp 897-901The World Association of Pulp and Paper-Making Research Institutes (WAPRI)AbstractPDF
WAPRI exists to provide a forum for discussion between directors of research institutes engaged in research work on the science and technology of the pulp and paper-making and allied industries. It currently comprises 22 members and these are mainly the central research institutes of the western pulp and paper-making world. Non-confidential information is exchanged between the institutes.
In addition to describing the activities of WAPRI this paper summarises the research activity (in non-confidential areas) of the subscribing institutes and provides information on the management and funding of those institutes.
As a result of the foresight, imagination and initiative of a few technical people and executives in the Canadian pulp and paper industry in the early 20’s, the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada was created 56 years ago to serve the industry. Its establishment recognised the fact that, even in those early days, the industry needed research and development, and that it would need to train scientists. Thus, right from the outset, PAPRICAN has had two broad missions:
1. To do research of importance to the industry:
2. To train scientists and technical personnel for the industry.
However, an appreciation of the nature of the Canadian pulp and paper industry is essential to an understanding of the development of PAPRICAN and of its programme.
Cambridgepp 923-943Research and Development Activities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in the EEC CountriesAbstractPDF
Most EEC countries have institutes concerned with research and development for the pulp and paper industry. These institutes are either independent establishments, such as PIRA in Great Britain or the Centre Technique in France, or they are part of larger institutions, such as the paper department of TNO in Holland or the Institute of Paper Technology of the Technical University of Darmstadt in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Budgets and personnel and hence the capacity of the research institutes vary considerably, characterised by a total staff of 12 persons minimum to 185 persons maximum. Accordingly, the budget varies between US$ 0.8 – 7 M per institute. The funding of the EEC research institutes is done in various ways, either by the government, or mixed, in the form of government and industrial contributions.
A few years ago the EEC commission in Brussels initiated a new funding incentive for certain projects.
Since the various research institutes already existed before the EEC was founded, it is not surprising that research strategies continue to have a strong national bias. The multi national character of research is still under-developed. The reason for this is, among other things, that the paper industries in some EEC countries regard international research with a certain suspicion. In addition, active communication and cooperation in research and development are impeded by the fact that much energy must be expended for raising funds . This is bound to lead to pronounced formalisation and to tactical biases in those bodies which are concerned with research and its contents.