AbstractTriploid Populus tomentosa Carr. (Salicaceae) is a good alternative to meet the increasing need of the global pulp and paper industry. Meanwhile, the xylem of this species could be a useful bioresource to develop low molecular extractives with significant bioactive potential. In the present work, a phytochemical investigation on aqueous EtOH extractives of Triploid P. tomentosa xylem, by systematical performance of Sephadex LH-20 open column chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), resulted in the isolation of two phenolic acids (ρ-coumaric acid (I) and caffeic acid (II)), two flavonoids (apigenin (III) and luteolin (IV)), and three phenolic glucosides (salicortin (V), salireposide (VI) and populoside (VII)). The structure elucidation and determination of the isolated extractives were based on their spectroscopical data and physiochemical evidences. This was the first time to report the low molecular weight extractives of Triploid P. tomentosa. Various low molecular weight extractives fromTriploid P. tomentosa xylem exhibited significant antioxidative activities by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays.