Bio-based ethylene produced by bioethanol dehydration is an environmentally friendly substitute for oil-based ethylene. It is a low-pollution raw material that can be used to produce high-value bio-based materials. Currently, some industrial plants use first-generation (1G) bioethanol to produce bio-ethylene. However, second-generation (2G) bioethanol is not currently used to produce bio-ethylene because the manufacturing processes are not optimized. The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bio-ethylene involves pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates, the fermentation of sugars to ethanol, ethanol recovery by distillation, and ethanol dehydration to ethylene. This work presents a review of second-generation (2G) bio-ethylene production, analyzing the stages of the process, possible derivatives, uses, and applications. This review also contains technical, economic, and environmental considerations in the possible installation of a biorefinery in the northeast region of Argentina (NEA).