The wood anatomy and chemistry of a relatively lesser used wood species, known in Mozambique as nsangala (Millettia mossambicensis J. B. Gillett), was compared to overexploited species jambire (Milletia stuhlmannii Taub.) to provide diagnostic features for safe discrimination. The anatomical results showed that both species shared several similarities such as intervessel pitting size range (8 µm to 11 µm), rays composed of only procumbent cells, fiber dimensions (average length up to 1359 µm and wall thickness up to 10 µm), and banded axial parenchyma. The extractives and lignin content were higher in jambire, while the carbohydrates and acetyl contents were higher in nsangala. The main anatomical feature separating the two species was the porosity pattern with semi-ring porous wood of nsangala compared to the diffuse-porous structure of jambire. Jambire had wider vessel lumina (200 µm) and up to 3 vessels/mm2 compared to nsangala vessel lumina of 86 µm and a frequency of 37 vessels/mm2.