AbstractLignocellulosic biomass is considered the most abundant renewable resource that has the potential to contribute remarkably in the supply of biofuel. Previous studies have shown that chemical pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD) can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In the present study, the effect of rice straw pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide (NH3•H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the biogasification performance through AD was investigated. A self-designed, laboratory-scale, and continuous anaerobic biogas digester was used for the evaluation. Results showed that the contents of the rice straw, i.e. the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were degraded significantly after the NH3•H2O and H2O2 treatments, and that biogas production from all pretreated rice straw increased. In addition, the optimal treatments for biogas production were the 4% and 3% H2O2 treatments (w/w), which yielded 327.5 and 319.7 mL/gVS, biogas, respectively, higher than the untreated sample. Biogas production from H2O2 pretreated rice straw was more favorable than rice straw pretreated with same concentration of ammonia, ranking in the order of 4% ≈ 3% > 2% > 1%. The optimal amount of H2O2 treatment for rice straw biogas digestion is 3% when economics and biogas yields are considered.