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Ren, Q., Huang, Y., Ma, H., Wang, F., Gao, J., and Xu, J. (2013). "Conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural catalyzed by metal halide in N,N-dimethylacetamide," BioRes. 8(2), 1563-1572.


A simple strategy is reported for catalytic conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) over AlI3 in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC). When the reaction was conducted in DMAC at 120°C for 15 min over AlI3 catalyst, HMF was obtained with a yield of 52%. The reaction course was monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and HPLC analysis. The results suggest that AlI3 catalyzes the three consecutive reactions consisting of mutarotation of α-glucopyranose to β-glucopyranose, isomerization of glucose to fructose, and dehydration of fructose to HMF.
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