NC State
BioResources
Eseyin, A. E., Steele, P. H., and Pittman Jr., C. U. (2015). "Current trends in the production and applications of torrefied wood/biomass - A review," BioRes. 10(4), 8812-8858.

Abstract

Trends in the production and applications of torrefied wood/biomass are reviewed in this article. The thermochemical conversion of biomass is a promising technology because biomass is an environmentally friendly fuel that produces substantially lower CO2 emissions compared to fossil fuel. Torrefaction is the thermal treatment of biomass at temperatures from 200 to 300 ˚C in the absence of air or oxygen to liberate water and release volatile organic compounds, primarily through the decomposition of the hemicelluloses. Torrefied biomass has a higher heating value, is more hydrophobic, resists rotting, and has a prolonged storage time. The different torrefaction technologies and reactors are described. An overview of the applications of torrefied biomass, the economic status, and future prospects of torrefaction technology are presented and discussed. Currently, torrefaction demonstration plants have technical problems that have delayed their commercial operation. Torrefaction reactors still require optimization to economically meet end-use requirements and attain product standardization for the market. Several characteristics of torrefaction need to be demonstrated or scaled up for successful commercialization.
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