A functional ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium iodide ([BuVyIm]I) was synthesized, and it exhibited the features of both decay resistance and leaching resistance after in-situ polymerization within wood. Treated wood specimens of Cryptomeria japonica were evaluated in this preliminary study using leaching tests with distilled water and decay tests for 12 weeks with brown rot fungi Fomitopsis palustris. The [BuVyIm]I polymerized by 100 kGy 60Co gamma irradiation was retained in wood after 10 wash and dry cycles, whereas nearly all of the [BuVyIm]I was washed out in the cases of 10 kGy and no irradiation. The decay testing of these specimens showed that sapwood had a different decay resistance depending on the strength of gamma irradiation used, whereas the treated heartwood did not support fungal growth. The results of this study imply that [BuVyIm]I polymerized by 100 kGy gamma irradiation have potential for wood preservation.