The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of surface roughness on bonding strength in Oriental beech, cherry, Scots pine, and Taurus cedar woods. In conformance with this objective, after planing the wooden materials under different conditions, their surface roughness values were determined in accordance with various standards using scanning equipment. The bonding strength test specimens were prepared using polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and polyurethane (PUR) adhesives after the wooden materials were separated into three groups of varying surface roughness values, after which bonding strength experiments were carried out. The data obtained from the experiments were evaluated statistically at a 95% level of confidence. According to the test results, the highest bonding strength was obtained in the Oriental beech (9.27 N/mm2), whereas the lowest bonding strength was obtained in the Scots pine (3.65 N/mm2). There was not a statistically significant difference between the bonding strength of the cherry and Oriental beech woods. The PVAc adhesive (7.61 N/mm2) produced more successful results than the PUR adhesive (5.63 N/mm2). Furthermore, it was found that in the specimens with low surface roughness values for each wood type and used adhesives had high bonding strengths.