This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the mechanical behavior and microstructural characteristics of peach palm fibers. The fiber morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the results of the mechanical tests were correlated with the fiber microstructure. The specimens were submitted to direct tensile tests in a state-of-the art microforce testing system using three different gauge lengths. The cross sectional areas of the fibers were measured using SEM micrographs and image analysis. The fiber microstructural characteristics were determined via thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The measured Young’s modulus was corrected for machine compliance. Weibull statistics were used to quantify the degree of variability in fiber strength at the different gauge lengths. The failure mechanisms were described and discussed in terms of the fiber microstructure, as well as defects in the fiber. The results showed that the fiber void content had a large influence on the fiber tensile strength and elastic modulus but the amount of main voids did not influence the fiber strength.