NC State
Salem, M. Z. M., Mansour, M. M. A., Mohamed, W. S., Mohamed Ali, H. M., and Hatamleh, A. A. (2017). "Evaluation of the antifungal activity of treated Acacia saligna wood with paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites against the growth of Alternaria tenuissima, Trichoderma harzianum, and Fusarium culmorum," BioRes. 12(4), 7615-7627.


Acacia saligna wood was impregnated with 5% and 10% concentrations of Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites using a soaking technique and evaluated for their antifungal activity against the growth of three molds in vitro, namely, Alternaria tenuissima, Trichoderma harzianum, and Fusarium culmorum. The Titanium (Ti) element peak of 0.14% and 0.23%, was found in the A. saligna wood treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10%, respectively. Consolidant polymer Paraloid B-72 mixed with TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10% showed antifungal activity against the three studied molds, while the linear growth of the studied molds reached the maximum in the control and Paraloid B-72 treatments. The results concluded that using synthesized Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposite could be considered as a new agent in the wood preservation field by prevention of mold fungal growth over the wood surfaces.

Download PDF

Full Article

Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of Treated Acacia saligna Wood with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 Nanocomposites Against the Growth of Alternaria tenuissimaTrichoderma harzianum, and Fusarium culmorum

Mohamed Z. M. Salem,a,* Maisa M. A. Mansour,b Wael S. Mohamed,Hayssam M. Ali,d,e,* and Ashraf A. Hatamleh d

Acacia saligna wood was impregnated with 5% and 10% concentrations of Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites using a soaking technique and evaluated for their antifungal activity against the growth of three molds in vitro, namely, Alternaria tenuissimaTrichoderma harzianum, and Fusarium culmorum. The Titanium (Ti) element peak of 0.14% and 0.23%, was found in the A. saligna wood treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10%, respectively. Consolidant polymer Paraloid B-72 mixed with TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10% showed antifungal activity against the three studied moldswhile the linear growth of the studied molds reached the maximum in the control and Paraloid B-72 treatments. The results concluded that using synthesized Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposite could be considered as a new agent in the wood preservation field by prevention of mold fungal growth over the wood surfaces.

Keywords: Durability improvement; Molds; Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites; Surface characterization

Contact information: a: Forestry and Wood Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture (EL-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; b: Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt; c: Polymer Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; d: Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; e: Timber Trees Research Department, Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt;

* Corresponding authors:;


Wood is a natural material that can be attacked in service by several biological pathogens such as wood-destroying fungi and molds. Molds including Fusarium and Alternaria have been found in such places where humid conditions are available (Fogel and Lloyd 2002; Xu et al. 2013). Branches and leaves of fallen trees into water are decomposed by Fusarium sp. (Wylloughby and Archer 1973; Révay and Gönczöl 1990), where F. culmorum has been isolated from water of the Andarax riverbed in the provinces of Granada and Almeria in southeastern Spain (Palmero et al. 2009) and an aquatic system (Smither-Kopperl et al. 1998). A. tenuissima has been isolated from different wood species (Sivanesan 1991) and has been shown to cause discoloration for wood and wood-based products (Andersen et al. 2002, 2011; Yang 2005; Lee et al. 2014).

Molds such as Alternaria and Fusarium could be isolated even if preservatives have previously treated the wood (Bridžiuvienė and Raudonienė 2013). In addition, Sohail et al. (2011) found that the Alternaria species produces an enzyme that hydrolyzes cellulose into glucose. Trichoderma species have been found to colonize Pinus radiata sapwood of freshly cut timber (Butcher 1968; Dowding 1970), whereas the poles of Scots pine heartwood have little colonization (Bruce and King 1986).

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) gel deposited in a high amount in the cell lumens of wood did help enhance the hygroscopicity of the wood; thereupon, thermal stability and stiffness of the wood cell walls were improved (Wang et al. 2012).

Nanoparticles have a broad-spectrum of uses in different areas, for example, a significant reduction in the mycelium biomass (28% to 35%) of A. niger and P. chrysogenum was found when using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the growing medium (Pietrzak and Gutarowska 2015). In addition, a reduction in bacterial numbers (92.9% to 94.6%) was obtained after treating the sewage with AgNPs (Patil 2014). The resistance of coatings containing ZnO nanoparticles was improved against the microbial attack by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger (El-Feky et al. 2014). Significant antifungal activity was found against Aspergillus flavusA. niger, and Candida albicans when using ZnO nanoparticles (Jayaseelan et al. 2012).

The treated wood with consolidants (synthetic and natural chemicals) resulted in higher strength than untreated wood, but can be attacked by fungi, molds, and insects (Clausi et al.2011). Paraloid B-72 is an acrylic resin that has been used as a wood surface consolidant (Yang et al. 2007; Vaz et al. 2008). However, this polymer at 2% or 10% has a weak resistance against the growth of fungi (Tiralová and Reinprecht 2004; Pohleven et al. 2013).

The authors’ previous studies reported F. culmorum was grown over an Acacia saligna wood surface that was treated by Paraloid B-72 (5% and 10%). Also, the enhancement of wood resistance was found with a combination of Paraloid B-72 and some natural extracts (Mansour et al. 2015; Mansour and Salem 2015). For example, the combination of Paraloid B-72 with Cupressus sempervirens wood (methanol extract) could be useful against T. harzianum (Mansour and Salem 2015), whereas borate base and voriconazole synergy effects were found useful in the inhibition of A. nigerP. chrysogenum, and Trichoderma viride (Clausen and Yang 2007). Titanium dioxide and Ag-doped titanium dioxide have been tested with consolidants and have been applied to several surface materials against biological colonization (La Russa et al. 2012; Ruffolo et al. 2013). Furthermore, the treatments of nano-compounds (CuO, ZnO, B2O3, TiO2, and CeO2) combined with Paraloid B-72 increased the biological performance of treated Scots pine wood against decay fungi tested but no improvements were obtained in mold resistance tests (Muhcu et al. 2017).

Therefore, in this present work the authors continued to increase the wood resistance by using a combination of Paraloid B-72 and TiO2 in the form of nanocomposites to treat the wood. The antifungal activity of the treated A. saligna wood with Paraloid B-72 polymer and Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites is evaluated at concentrations of 5% and 10% against the growth of three molds (Alternaria tenuissimaTrichoderma harzianum, and Fusarium culmorumin vitro.



Synthesis of paraloid B-72/nano TiO2 by in situ emulsion polymerization

A co-polymer emulsion lattice with a 50/50 composition ratio of methyl methacrylate/ethyl acrylate (MMA/EA) monomers (Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany) was used to produce poly(MMA-Co-EA). It was prepared by an emulsion polymerization technique with different solid contents (5% and 10%) in the presence of 3% of TiO2 nanoparticles. The polymerization was carried out according to the following procedure: in a 250-mL three-nicked flask, 1 g of emulsifier sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (El Gomhouria Company, Cairo, Egypt) was dissolved in a desired amount of distilled water.

The desired amount of the monomers with the selected composition ratio (50/50 MMA/EA), was added and well emulsified for 30 min at room temperature using a mechanical stirrer (500 rpm) in the presence of 0.03 g of TiO2 nanoparticles (a mixture of rutile and anatase nanopowder, < 100 nm particle size (BET), 99.5% trace metals basis obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Schnelldorf, Germany). Then, the mixture was heated to 80 ºC (Shafei et al. 2008). Next, the redox initiation system composed of potassium persulphate (PPS) (0.27 g) and sodium bisulphite (SBS) (0.416 g) (Sigma-Aldrich, Schnelldorf, Germany) dissolved in 50 mL of distilled water was added dropwise to the reaction mixture under continuous stirring for 3 h. To obtain the solution of Paraloid-B72/TiO2 nanocomposites, 100 mL of anhydrous xylene was added to the desired amount of Paraloid-B72/TiO2 nanocomposites in the presence of N2 and heated to 80 °C. The properties of the used concentrations are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Concentrations of Used Coating Materials to Produce Polymer-based Inorganic Nanoparticle Composite

MMA: methyl methacrylate

EA: ethyl acrylate

Morphological analysis of the prepared nanocomposites

The morphological analyses of the prepared paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites were investigated by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), where the TEM images were obtained by a JEM-1230 electron microscope operated at 60 KV (JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Before taking a TEM image, the sample was diluted at least 10 times by water. A drop of well-dispersed diluted sample was placed onto a copper grid (200-mesh and covered with a carbon membrane) and dried at ambient temperature.

The prepared Paraloid B-72/TiOnanocomposite was investigated using TEM and from the figure, it was noticed that, a homogenous nanocomposite between Paraloid B-72 and TiO2nanoparticles was prepared and the obtained particle size reached 38 nm in the case of Paraloid B-72 (5%) in presence of 3% TiO2 (Fig. 1) and reached 54 nm in the case of Paraloid B-72 (10%) and in presence of 3% TiO(Fig. 2).

Fig. 1. TEM images of nanocomposite for Paraloid B-72 (5%) in presence of 3% TiO2; A) Photo at 500 nm of magnification and B) at 200 nm of magnification

Fig. 2. TEM images of nanocomposite for Paraloid B-72 (10%) in presence of 3% TiO2; A) Photo at 500 nm of magnification and B) at 200 nm of magnification

Preparation and treating wood samples

Wood samples of A. saligna were prepared at the Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Alexandria University (Alexandria, Egypt) during January 2017 with the dimensions of 0.5 cm × 1 cm × 2 cm. The wood samples were soaked for complete saturation in a solution of Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites (5% and 10%) and Paraloid B-72 polymer (5% and 10%) in Petri dishes for three sequential days and left to dry at room temperature for 15 days (Mansour and Salem 2015). The surfaces of the treated wood with 5% and 10% of Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites were examined for their elemental composition by dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) (FEI Company, Eindhoven, Netherlands) (Danilatos and Robinson 1979).

Retention value of Paraloid B-72 and Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposite in A. saligna wood samples

The retention value was calculated based on BS EN 113 standard test method (BS EN 1997) and the recommendation of Mańkowski et al. (2015) with some modification. A. saligna wood samples were firstly weighed based on oven-dry weight, and then saturated by soaking method with the concentrated Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites (5% and 10%) and Paraloid B-72 polymer (5% and 10%). After all the treatments, the wood samples were air-dried in the laboratory for 48 h, then conditioned at 20 ± 2 ºC and 65 ± 5 % RH until constant weight, and the final weight after treatment was recorded, then the retention value was calculated as kg/m3.

Antifungal activity

The three common molds, namely Alternaria tenuissimaTrichoderma harzianum, and Fusarium culmorum, were used in the present study and supplied from the Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology, Al-Azhar University (Cairo, Egypt). Plates of potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium were prepared and inoculated with a 5-mm disc of 7-day-old culture from each of the tested molds. The treated wood samples with two levels of the concentrated Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites and the Paraloid B-72 polymer were put over the inoculated plates and incubated for 2 weeks at 25 °C. The fungal liner growth (mm) of the three mold fungi was measured after 14 days according to the methods described in the following sources (Satish et al. 2007; Essa and Khallaf 2014; Mansour and Salem 2015; Mansour et al. 2015; Salem et al. 2016 a, b) with some modification, where the linear growth was measured by a ruler from the fungal growth to the marge of the clear inhibition zones (no growth of fungus) formed around the treated wood once the control treatment (wood without any treatments) reached 9 cm-diameter in the growth. The wood samples were used for each treatment. Furthermore, after 6 months of inoculation at room temperature, the fungal colonization was visually evaluated (Mansour et al. 2015; Mansour and Salem 2015).


Statistical analysis

The effects of five different treatments [control (wood without any treatment), Paraloid B-72 polymer (5 and 10%), and Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites (5 and 10%)] on the linear growth values of A. tenuissima, T. harzianum, and F. culmorum, were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA using SAS version 8.2 software (2001) (Cary, NC, USA) in a completely randomized design. Least significant difference (LSD) at the α = 0.05 level was used to test the differences among the treatments.


EDX Measurements of Treated Wood with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 Nanocomposites

The elemental chemical compositions of the treated wood with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10% are shown in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively. The C element was 61.96% and 59.09% in wood treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanoparticles at 5% and 10%, respectively. The Titanium (Ti) element peak was found in percentages of 0.14% and 0.23%, on the A. saligna wood treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10%, respectively.

Fig. 3. EDX analysis of treated wood with Paraloid72/TiO2 nanocomposite at 5%

Fig. 4. EDX analysis of treated wood with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposite at 10%

Retention of Paraloid B-72 and Paraloid B-72/TiO2 Nanocomposite in Wood

Table 2 presents the retention values in the Paraloid B-72/TiO2-treated wood specimens as well as Paraloid B-72. Statistically significant higher mean of retention value was recorded after double concentration for the treated samples. These results are in agreements with Muhcu et al. (2017) and Mańkowski et al. (2015, 2016).

Table 2. Retention Levels of Paraloid B-72 and Paraloid B-72/TiO2 Nanocomposite in Wood Specimens after Treatments

Retention levels in treated wood specimens by soaking method.

Values in parentheses are standard deviations.

Fungal Linear Growth

The linear growth of the studied three molds (Table 3) reached its highest (90 mm) in the control treatment, while it decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) to 38.3 mm, 38.3 mm, and 23.3 mm with T. harzianumA. tenuissima, and F culmorum, respectively, as A. saligna wood was treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at a concentration of 5%. Furthermore, the linear growth was significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced with values of 13.3 mm, 13.3 mm, and 11.3 mm, for T. harzianumA. tenuissima, and F culmorum, respectively, using the wood treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at a concentration of 10%.

Table 3. Means ± Standard Deviation (Standard Error of Linear Growth of T. harzianumA. tenuissima, and F. culmorum as Affected by Paraloid B-72/TiO2 Nanocomposites (5% and 10%) and Paraloid B-72

Means with the same letter within the same column are not significantly difference according to LSD at a 0.05 level of probability

From Table 3, the linear growth of the three molds incubated with the treated wood samples with Paraloid B-72 reached the maximum, which was not significantly different from the control treatments. These results are in agreement with previous works (Tiralová and Reinprecht 2004; Yang et al. 2007; Vaz et al. 2008; Pohleven et al. 2013; Mansour et al. 2015; Mansour and Salem 2015; Reinprecht and Vidholdová 2017). Also, Paraloid B-72-only treated wood specimens were observed to have the highest weight losses in decay tests (Reinprecht et al. 2015; Muhcu et al. 2017) and practically the polyacrylate Paraloid B-72 had no effects against molds (Reinprecht and Vidholdová 2017).

Several studies reported that TiO2 applied as a coating has high photoactivity and non-toxicity, as well as a strong self-cleaning property (Meng and Lu 2010; Zawadzka et al. 2016). Suitable antifungal properties of the photocatalyst TiO2 nanoparticles have been observed against Candida albicans biofilms (Akiba et al. 2005; Shibata et al. 2007; Haghighi et al.2013). Cotton fabric impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles showed a maximum zone of inhibition against Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei and was demonstrated to be an effective antimicrobial agent (Durairaj et al. 2015). The poly(lactic acid)/TiO2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were effective (99.99%) against Aspergillus fumigatus under the ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation (Fonseca et al. 2015).

Nano-particle as fillers in a polymer structure combined with consolidant materials has the ability to neutralize acid, has high durability, and is a better coating (Christensen et al. 2012). The nano-materials (ZnO, TiO2, SiO2, CuO, Fe2O3) mixed consolidation products increased the biological, UV radiation scratch, abrasion and water resistance of wood (Blee and Matisons 2008; Kartal et al. 2009; Tuduce-Trãistaru et al. 2010; Clausi et al. 2011).

Unger et al. (2001) reported that Paraloid B-72 was provided some antifungal activity to the consolidated wood, but other studies have shown that Paraloid B-72 cannot protect wood itself against wood-destroying fungi and molds, which needs the additions of fungicides (Nakhla 1986), chemical preservative (Olstag and Kucerova 2009), natural products (Mansour et al. 2015; Mansour and Salem 2015), or nanoparticles (Muhcu et al. 2017). Furthermore, the choosing of ideal consolidant is very important to be compatible with wood-protecting biocides (Unger et al. 2001; Mansour et al. 2015; Mansour and Salem 2015). Therefore, the combination of Paraloid B-72 with TiO2 nanoparticle at 5% and 10% showed strong antifungal activity against the growth of T. harzianumA. tenuissima, and F. culmorum.

Visual Observation after 14 Days

After 14 days from the inoculation, wood samples treated with Paraloid B-72 were completely colonized by the three molds (Mansour et al. 2015; Mansour and Salem 2015). In contrast, the treated wood samples with either Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% or 10% showed significant inhibition to the linear growth of the three tested molds after 14 days from the inoculation. By contrast, the consolidant polymer Paraloid B-72 mixed with TiO2 nanoparticles was shown to be a strong antifungal agent against the three studied molds.

Previous studies about using nanoparticles for preventing mold infestation showed that a 90 ppm concentration of AgNPs (10 nm to 100 nm particle size) was effective in removing the molds present on the surface of objects from six different museums and archives in Poland (Gutarowska et al. 2012). Consolidation polymers (acrylic and silicon polymers) functionalized with AgNPs were found used as a potent biocide and consolidation material for historic monuments and artifacts (Essa and Khallaf 2014). Consolidants and water repellents mixed with copper nanoparticles were effective in the protection of stones from biodeterioration (Pinna et al. 2012).

Visual Observation of the Incubated Wood Samples after 3 Months

The visual observations of the treated wood samples with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at (5% and 10%) and inoculated with T. harzianumA. tenuissima, and F. culmorum are evaluated after Petri dishes were stored at room temperature for 3 months. It was observed that no visual growths of A. tenuissima were found on the surface of A. saligna wood samples treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 10%, but some growth was observed for the treated wood with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5%. Some growth of T. harzianum was visually observed for both treatments (Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10%). Growths of F. culmorum were apparent all over the surface of the treated wood samples, regardless of treatment.


  1. Increasing saturation wood with the concentrated Paraloid B-72 solution or Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites significantly increased the retention values.
  2. The linear growth of T. harzianumA. tenuissima, and F. culmorum reached the maximum in the Paraloid B-72 and control treatment (wood without any treatments), while it decreased as A. saligna wood was treated with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at the concentration of 5% and 10%.
  3. After 3 months from the incubation at room temperature, no visual growth of A. tenuissima was found for treated wood (Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites 10%), T. harzianumgrowth was visually observed (Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites at 5% and 10%) and growth of F. culmorum was observed regardless of treatment.
  4. From the present results, these combinations of nanocomposites (Paraloid B-72/TiO2) could be useful as a potential treatment against molds and staining fungi that colonize wood.


The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding this Research group No. RG 1435-011.


Akiba, N., Hayakava, I., Keh, E. S., and Watanabe, A. (2005). “Antifungal effect of a tissue conditioner coating agent with TiO2 photocatalyst,” J. Med. Dent. Sci. 52(4), 223-227. DOI: 10.11480/jmds.520408

Andersen, B., Krøger, E., and Roberts, R. G. (2002). “Chemical and morphological segregation of Alternaria aborescensA. infectoria and A. tenuissima species groups,” Mycol. Res.106(2), 170-182. DOI: 10.1017/S0953756201005263

Andersen, B., Frisvad, J. C., Sondergaard, I., Rasmussen, I. S., and Larsen, L. S. (2011). “Associations between fungal species and water-damaged building materials,” Appl. Environ. Microb. 77(12), 4180-4188. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02513-10

Blee, A., and Matisons, J. G. (2008). “Nanoparticles and the conservation of cultural heritage,” Mater. Forum. 32, 121–128

Bridžiuvienė, D., and Raudonienė, V. (2013). “Fungi surviving on treated wood and some of their physiological properties,” Mater. Sci+. 19(1), 43-50. DOI: 10.5755/

Bruce, A., and King, B. (1986). “Biological control of decay in creosote treated distribution poles-II. Control of decay in poles by immunizing commensal fungi,” Mater. Organismen 21, 165-179.

BS EN (1997). BS EN 113: “Wood preservatives—test method for determining the protective effectiveness against wood destroying basidiomycetes—determination of the toxic values,” No: 1-2, European committee for standardization, Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels. ISBN 0 580 27324 5

Butcher, J. A. (1968). “The ecology of fungi infecting untreated sapwood of Pinus radiata,” Can. J. Bot. 46(12), 1577-1588. DOI: 10.1139/b68-219

Christensen, M., Kutzke, H., and Hansen, F. K. (2012). “New materials used for the consolidation of archaeological wood-past attempts, present struggles, and future requirements,” J. Cult. Herit. 13(3), 183-190. DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2012.02.013

Clausen, C. A., and Yang, V. (2007). “Protecting wood from mould, decay, and termites with multi-component biocide systems,” Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 59(1), 20-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2005.07.005

Clausi, M., Crisci, G. M., Russa, M. F., Malagodi, M., Palermo, A., and Ruffolo, S. A. (2011). “Protective action against fungal growth of two consolidating products applied to wood,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(1), 28-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2010.06.002

Danilatos, G. D., and Robinson, V. N. E. (1979). “Principles of scanning electron microscopy at high specimen pressures,” Scanning 2(2), 72-82. DOI: 10.1002/sca.4950020202

Dowding, P. (1970). “Colonization of freshly bared pine sapwood surfaces by staining fungi,” Transactions of the British Mycological Society 55(3), 399-412. DOI: 10.1016/S0007-1536(70)80061-4

Durairaj, B., Muthu, S., and Xavier, T. (2015). “Antimicrobial activity of Aspergillus niger synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles,” Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 6(1), 45-48.

El-Feky, O. M., Hassan, E. A., Fadel, S. M., and Hassan, M. L. (2014). “Use of ZnO nanoparticles for protecting oil paintings on paper support against dirt, fungal attack, and UV aging,” J. Cult. Herit. 15(2), 165-172. DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2013.01.012

Essa, A. M. M., and Khallaf, M. K. (2014). “Biological nanosilver particles for the protection of archaeological stones against microbial colonization,” Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 94, 31-37. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2014.06.015

Fogel, J. L., and Lloyd, J. D. (2002). “Mold performance of some construction products with and without borate,” Forest Prod. J. 52(2), 38-43.

Fonseca, C., Ochoa, A., Ulloa, M. T., Alvarez, E., Canales, D., and Zapata, P. A. (2015). “Poly(lactic acid)/TiO₂ nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials,” Mat. Sci. Eng. C- Biomim. 57(12), 314-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.069

Gutarowska, B., Skora, J., Zduniak, K., and Rembisz, D. (2012). “Analysis of the sensitivity of microorganisms contaminating museums and archives to silver nanoparticles,” Int. Biodeter.Biodegr. 68(3), 7-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2011.12.002

Haghighi, F., Roudbar Mohammadi, S., Mohammadi, P., Hosseinkhani, S., and

Shidpour, R. (2013). “Antifungal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and EDTA on Candida albicans biofilms,” Infection Epidemiology & Medicine 1(1), 33-38.

Jayaseelan, C., Abdul Rahumana, A., Vishnu, K. A., Marimuthu, S., Santhoshku-mar, T., Bagavan, A., Gaurav, K., Karthik, L., and Bhaskara, K. V. (2012). “Novel microbial route to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and their activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi, Spectrochim,” Spectrochim. Acta A 90(5), 78-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2012.01.006

Kartal, S. N., Green, F. III., and Clausen, C. A. (2009). “Do unique properties of nanometals affect leachability or efficacy against fungi and termites,” Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 63(4), 490-495. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2009.01.007

La Russa, M. F., Ruffolo, S. A., Rovella, N., Belfiore, C. M., Palermo, A. M., Guzzi, M. T., and Crisci, G. M. (2012). “Multifunctional TiO2 coatings for cultural heritage,” Prog. Org. Coat. 74(1), 186-191. DOI: 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2011.12.008

Lee, Y. M., Lee, H., Jang, Y., Cho, Y., Kim, G.-H., and Kim, J.-J. (2014). “Phylogenetic analysis of major molds inhabiting woods. Part 4. Genus Alternaria,” Holzforschung 68(2), 247-251. DOI: 10.1515/hf-2013-0089

Mańkowski, P., Kozakiewicz, P., and Krzosek. S. (2016). “The maximum moisture content of lime wood impregnated with Paraloid B-72 solution in butyl acetate,” Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Forestry and Wood Technology No 95, 236-241.

Mańkowski, P., Kozakiewicz, P., and Krzosek, S. (2015). “Retention of polymer in lime wood impregnated with Paraloid B-72 solution in butyl acetate,” Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Forestry and Wood Technology No 92, 263-267.

Mansour, M. M. A., Abdel-Megeed, A., Nasser, R. A., and Salem, M. Z. M. (2015). “Comparative evaluation of some woody trees methanolic extracts and Paraloid B-72 against phytopathogenic mold fungi Alternaria tenuissima and Fusarium culmorum,” BioResources 10(2), 2570-2584. DOI: 10.15376/biores.10.2.2570-2584

Mansour, M. M. A., and Salem M. Z. M. (2015). “Evaluation of wood treated with some natural extracts and Paraloid B-72 against the fungus Trichoderma harzianum: Wood elemental composition, in-vitro and application evidence,” Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 100(C), 62-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.02.009

Meng, F., and Lu, F. (2010). “Pure and silver (2.5–40 vol%) modified TiO2 thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature: Surface topography, energy gap and photo-induced hydrophilicity,” J. Alloys Compd. 501(1), 154-158. DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.04.067

Muhcu, D., Terzi, E., Kartal, S. N., and Yoshimura, T. (2017). “Biological performance, water absorption, and swelling of wood treated with nano-particles combined with the application of Paraloid B72®,” J. For. Res. 28(2), 381-394. DOI: 10.1007/s11676-016-0287-1

Nakhla, S. M. (1986). “A comparative study of resins for the consolidation of wooden objects,” Stud. Conserv. 31(1), 38-44. DOI: 10.2307/1505957

Olstag, T. M., and Kucerova, I. (2009). Report of focused meeting within the COST action IE0601. Wood Science for Conservation of Cultural Heritage (WoodCultHer)—consolidation, reinforcement & stabilisation of decorated wooden artefacts. Institute of Chemical Techniques, Prague, Czech Republic

Palmero, D., de Cara, M., Iglesias, C., and Tello, J. C. (2009). “The interactive effects of temperature and osmotic potential on the growth of aquatic isolates of Fusarium culmorum,” Geomicrobiol. J. 26(5), 321-325. DOI: 10.1080/01490450902748641

Patil, S. R. (2014). “Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Fusarium semitectum and green extracts,” Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 2(3), 140-145.

Pietrzak, K., and Gutarowska, B. (2015). “Influence of the silver nanoparticles on microbial community in different environments,” Acta Biochim. Pol. 62(4), 721-724. DOI: 10.18388/abp.2015_1118

Pinna, D., Salvadori, B., and Galeotti, M. (2012). “Monitoring the performance of innovative and traditional biocides mixed with consolidants and water-repellents for the prevention of biological growth on stone,” Sci. Total Environ. 423(4), 132-141. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.02.012

Pohleven, F., Valantič, A., and Petrič, M. (2013). “Resistance of consolidated deteriorated wood to wood decay fungi,” in: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting, IRG/WP 13-10812, Stockholm, Sweden.

Reinprecht, L., Vidholdová, Z., and Kožienka, M. (2015). “Decay inhibition of lime wood with zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with acrylic resin,” Acta Facultatis Xylologiae Zvolen 57(1), 43-52. DOI: 10.17423/afx.2016.58.1.06

Reinprecht, L., and Vidholdová, Z. (2017). “Growth inhibition of moulds on wood surfaces in presence of nano-zinc oxide and its combinations with polyacrylate and essential oils,” Wood Research 62(1), 37-44.

Révay, A., and Gönczöl, J. (1990). “Longitudinal distribution and colonization patterns of wood-inhabiting fungi in a mountain stream in Hungary,” Nova Hedwigia 51(3-4), 505-520.

Ruffolo, S. A., Macchia, A., La Russa, M. F., Mazza, L., Urzì, C., De Leo, F., Barberio, M., and Crisci, G. M. (2013). “Marine antifouling for underwater archaeological sites: TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2,” Int. J. Photoenerg. 2013, Article ID 251647, 1-6. DIO: 10.1155/2013/251647

Salem, M. Z. M., Zidan, Y. E., Mansour, M. M. A., El Hadidi, N. M. N., and Abo Elgat, W. A. A. (2016a). “Evaluation of usage three natural extracts applied to three commercial wood species against five common molds,” Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 110(C), 206-226. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.03.028

Salem, M. Z. M., Zidan, Y. E., Mansour, M. M. A., El Hadidi, N. M. N., and Abo Elgat, W. A. A. (2016b). “Antifungal activities of two essential oils used in the treatment of three commercial woods deteriorated by five common mold fungi,” Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 106(C), 88-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.10.010

Satish, S., Mohana, D. C., Ranhavendra, M. P., and Raveesha, K. A. (2007). “Antifungal activity of some plant extracts against important seed borne pathogens of Aspergillus sp.,” J. Agric. Tech. 3(1), 109-119.

Shafei, K. A., Mustafa, A. B., and Mohamed, W. S. (2008). “Grafting emulsion polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto leather by chemical initiation systems,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 109(6), 3923-3931. DOI: 10.1002/app.28404

Shibata, T., Hamada, N., Kimoto, K., Sawada, T., Sawada, T., Kumada, H., Umemoto, T., and Toyoda, M. (2007). “Antifungal effect of acrylic resin containing apatite-coated TiO2photocatalyst,” Dent. Mater. J. 26(3), 437-44. DOI: 10.4012/dmj.26.437

Sivanesan, A. (1991). “The taxonomy and biology of dematiaceous hyphomycetes and their mycotoxins,” in: Fungi and Mycotoxins in Stored ProductsProceedings of an International Conference, B. R. Champ, E. Highley, A. D. Hocking, and J. I. Pitt (eds.), Griffin Press Ltd., Australia, pp. 47-64.

Smither-Kopperl, M. L., Charudattan, R., and Berger, R. D. (1998). “Dispersal of spores of Fusarium culmorum in aquatic systems,” Phytopathol. 88(5), 382-388. DOI: 10.1094/PHYTO.1998.88.5.382

Sohail, M., Ahmad, A., and Khan, S. A. (2011). “Production of cellulases from Alternaria sp. MS28 and their partial characterization,” Pakistan J. Bot. 43(6), 3001-3006.

SAS (2001). Users Guide: Statistics (Release 8.02), SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

Tiralová, Z., and Reinprecht, L. (2004). “Fungal decay of acrylate treated wood,” International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Document No. IRG/WP 04-30357, Conference: 35 th Annual Meeting IRG/WP, At Ljubljana (Slovenia). DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3884.8646

Tuduce-Trãistaru, A.-A., Campean, M., and Timar, M. C. (2010). “Compatibility indicators in developing consolidation materials with nanoparticle insertions for old wooden objects,” Int. J. Conserv. Sci. 1(4), 219-226.

Unger, A., Schniewind, A. P., and Unger, W. (2001). “Conservation of wood artifacts a handbook,” Springer-Verlag, Germany. ISBN: 978-3-540-41580-0

Vaz, M. F., Pires, J., and Carvalho, A. P. (2008). “Effect of the impregnation treatment with Paraloid B-72 on the properties of old Portuguese ceramic tiles,” Journal of Cultural Heritage 9, 269-276. DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2008.01.003

Wang, X., Liu J., and Chai, Y. (2012). “Thermal, mechanical, and moisture absorption properties of wood-TiOcomposites prepared by a sol-gel process,” BioResources 7(1), 893-901. DOI: 10.15376/biores.7.1.893-901

Wylloughby, L. G., and Archer, J. F. (1973). “The fungal spore in a freshwater stream and its colonization pattern on wood,” Freshwater Biol. 3(3), 219-239. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1973.tb00918.x

Xu, X., Lee, S., Wu, Y., and Wu, Q. (2013). “Borate-treated strand board from southern wood species: Resistance against decay and mold fungi,” BioResources 8(1), 104-114. DOI: 10.15376/biores.8.1.104-114

Yang, D.-Q. (2005). “Isolation of wood-inhabiting fungi from Canadian hardwood logs,” Can. J. Microbiol. 51(1), 1-6. DOI: 10.1139/w04-104

Yang, L., Wang, L., and Wang, P. (2007). “Investigation of photo-stability of acrylic polymer Paraloid B72 used for conservation,” Sciences of Conservation and Archaeology 19, 54–58.

Zawadzka, K., Kisielewska, A., Piwonski, I., Kadzioła, K., Felczak, A., Rózalska, S., Nwronska, N., and Lisowska, K. (2016). “Mechanisms of antibacterial activity and stability of silver nanoparticles grown on magnetron sputtered TiO2 coatings,” Bulletin of Materials Science 39(1), 57-68. DOI: 10.1007/s12034-015-1137-z

Article submitted: May 19, 2017; Peer review completed: August 19, 2017; Revised version received and accepted: August 24, 2017; Published: August 31, 2017.

DOI: 10.15376/biores.12.4.7615-7627