NC State
Song, T., Pranovich, A., and Holmbom, B. (2012). "Hot-water extraction of ground spruce wood of different particle size," BioRes. 7(3), 4214-4225.


Hot-water extraction of hemicelluloses, especially galactoglucomannans, from fractions of ground spruce wood with different particle sizes was studied at 170°C with extraction times up to 60 min. Extraction of spruce sapwood, heartwood, and thermomechanical pulp (TMP) was also compared at 160 to 180°C. Static batch extractions were carried out in an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). The extracted hemicelluloses were characterized by sugar unit analysis and determination of acetyl groups and molar masses. The particle size significantly affected the extraction of ground wood. The total extraction yield, as well as the yields of hemicelluloses and monosaccharides, was the highest from the finest ground wood fraction (< 0.1 mm). The release of acetic acid, average molar mass of extracted hemicelluloses, and end-pH of the extracts were also dependent of the particle size, although to a lower extent. Irrespectively of the ground wood particle size, the yield of hemicelluloses reached a plateau after 40 min extraction at 170°C. The results indicate that extraction of hemicelluloses is limited mainly by the diffusion in the fiber wall, and for coarse wood shives also by the mass transfer in the wood matrix. There were only small differences in the hot-water extraction yields of hemicelluloses from spruce sapwood, heartwood, and TMP, considering both poly- and monosaccharides.

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