Cellulose nanofiber (CNF) was used to improve the optical and strength properties of soda bagasse pulp (500 CSF) in the presence of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM). Cationic polyacrylamide was added at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15%, and cellulose nanofiber was added at 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% based on pulp O.D. Laboratory handsheets were prepared (60 g/m2), and optical and strength properties were measured according to TAPPI standards. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images showed that empty spaces between fibers decreased under CPAM/CNF treatments. The effect of the additives and their addition level on all the measured paper properties was significant at the 99% confidence level. The light scattering coefficient, brightness, and whiteness increased with the addition of cellulose nanofibers, but the light absorption coefficient, yellowness, and opacity decreased. At the highest levels of the additives (2% CNF and 0.15% CPAM), the tensile and burst strengths of handsheets increased by 33% and 15%, respectively. Generally, cellulose nanofibers/cationic polyacrylamide complexes improved the optical and strength properties of bagasse pulp.