Fast pyrolysis is an important technology in biological waste disposal. It can produce fuels (bio-gas and bio-oil) and high-value chemicals. In this paper, camphor wood powder was subjected to fast pyrolysis, and the influence of the pyrolysis and torrefaction pretreatment temperature on the pyrolysis product distribution was investigated. The results showed that camphor wood powder produced higher phenol, 2-methoxy, 2-methoxy-4-vinyl-phenol, and 1, 2, 4-trimethoxybenzene compared with corn straw, rice husk, and wheat straw. The temperature of torrefaction pretreatment and fast pyrolysis simultaneously affected the yield of bio-oil and the composition of the pyrolysis product. The yield of bio-oil was the highest at 500 °C. Additionally, the yield of different high-value chemicals was the highest at 500 °C. When the camphor wood powder was pretreated under conditions of torrefaction, the yield of 3-furfural decreased and that of phenol, 2-methoxy, 2-methoxy-4-vinyl-phenol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 1, 2, 4-trimethoxybenzene increased, especially phenol, 2-methoxy, and 1, 2, 4-trimethoxybenzene. The yields of bio-oil and high-value chemicals were the highest at 500 °C of catalytic pyrolysis and at 300 °C of torrefaction treatment during the fast pyrolysis of camphor wood powder.