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BioResources
Liu, C., Zhang, Y., Wang, S., Meng, Y., and Hosseinaei, O. (2014). "Micromechanical properties of the interphase in cellulose nanofiber-reinforced phenol formaldehyde bondlines," BioRes. 9(3), 5529-5541.

Abstract

Lab-processed cellulose nanofibrils (CNF-L), commercial cellulose nanofibrils (CNF-C), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used in this study as reinforcing materials in phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin. The mechanical modification of adhesives and cell wall layers (S2 and compound corner-middle lamellae [CCML]) by the three types of cellulose particles was investigated by nanoindentation. Results showed that cellulose nano-materials can improve the mechanical properties of both adhesives and the cell wall structure. CNF-C had the most obvious reinforcing effect on the elastic modulus (Er) and hardness within the glue line. With modification, the Er and hardness reached 13.0 and 0.436 GPa, respectively, in the S2 layer far from the glue line. In comparison, the control sample had an Er and hardness of 7.31 and 0.256 GPa, respectively.
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