AbstractThe morphological changes of jack pine (Pinus banksiama) earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) in thermomechanical pulping (TMP) were studied by light microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicate that: under the mechanical forces in refining, the EW fibres tend to separate in the P/S1 interface, while separation of the LW fibres takes place commonly in the P/S1 and S1/S2 regions. The thick-walled LW fibres exhibit much more external fibrillation than the thin-walled EW. As a result, the LW fines contain more fibrillar component than EW fines. The EW fibers suffer more fiber cutting and splitting than the LW fibers. In addition, the thin-walled EW fibres show higher collapsibility and conformability than the LW counterparts.