To compare the properties of different plant fiber/soybean protein adhesive composites, six types of plant fibers (rice straw, wheat straw, peanut straw, rice husk, wheat husk, and peanut shell) were selected as reinforced materials, and soybean protein adhesive was used as the adhesive. Six types of different bio-composites were prepared by the compression molding process. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, mechanical properties, moisture absorption, and thermal stability of the composites were measured. The tensile cross-section microstructure of the composites was examined. Results showed that the peanut straw/soybean protein adhesive composite contained more hydrophilic groups. The wheat fiber-based composites possessed more hydrogen bonds, leading to the best binding interface compatibility and mechanical properties. The wheat straw/soybean protein adhesive composite had the highest tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength, which were 337.7%, 638.6%, and 483.4%, compared to those of the rice husk/soybean protein adhesive composite, respectively. The peanut shell/soybean protein adhesive composite’s equilibrium moisture content was the lowest (8.70%). The rice husk/soybean protein adhesive composite had the highest equilibrium moisture content (14.23%), and the best thermal stability as the initial temperature of pyrolysis was 283.4 °C and the residual mass was 34.45%.