Cellulosic fibers were efficiently disintegrated from bamboo pulp as raw material and then oxidized using sodium periodate to introduce dialdehyde groups on their surfaces. The resultant fibers were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the characteristic absorption band of aldehyde groups was present at 1735 cm-1, confirming that aldehyde groups were successfully introduced. XRD showed that the nature of bamboo pulp fibers changed slightly after oxidation, except in the reduction of crystallinity. The aldehyde content increased with the sodium periodate content and reached a maximum of 1.41 mmol/g. The yield loss maximum was 32.4 wt%. TGA results showed that the temperature at the initial and final decomposition of the oxidized fibers was subject to the periodate dosage and that the thermal stability decreased to some extent.