NC State
Wang, H., Li, D., and Zhang, R. (2013). "Preparation of ultralong cellulose nanofibers and optically transparent nanopapers derived from waste corrugated paper pulp," BioRes. 8(1), 1374-1384.


Ultralong cellulose nanofibers with extremely high aspect ratio were successfully manufactured from waste corrugated paper pulp through a series of chemical treatments combined with grinding, ultrasonication, and centrifugation. SEM images revealed that the prepared cellulose nanofibers exhibited a uniform width ranging from 30 to 100 nm and a web-like network structure. The nanopaper was produced by filtration and oven drying using the obtained cellulose nanofibrils suspension. An interesting phenomenon occurred, namely that the nanopaper formed ​​in multilayered nanofibrous flakes, which can be seen in the SEM image of the nanopaper cross section. The nanopaper derived from waste corrugated paper presented high tensile properties, with a tensile strength of 135 MPa and a tensile modulus of 6.67 GPa, which was approximately 10 times higher than the untreated waste corrugated paper. The obtained nanopaper also exhibited high transmittance of 85.2% at 600 nm wavelength and low thermal expansion of 16.2 ppm/K. The high performance nanopaper seems to be a strong candidate for fabricating optical electronics, solar cells, and panel sensors.
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