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Cheng, J., Wang, X., Huang, R., Liu, M., Yu, C., and Cen, K. (2014). "Producing ethanol from water hyacinth through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with acclimatized yeasts," BioRes. 9(4), 7666-7680.


The production rate and yield of ethanol was markedly increased when water hyacinth, pretreated with microwave-assisted dilute acid, was fermented with acclimatized yeasts through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Water hyacinth hydrolyzate microwaved with 1% (v/v) dilute sulfuric acid was fermented with the acclimatized mixed yeasts Pichia stipitis and Pachysolen tannophilus at a volume ratio of 1:1. The highest ethanol yield was 0.22 g/g (raw biomass of water hyacinth), which was 76.3% of the theoretical ethanol yield. A maximum ethanol production rate of 0.19 g/(L·h) was obtained after 24 h.
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