AbstractThis study investigated the performance of recycled polypropylene (RPP)/peanut shell powder (PSP) composites with untreated PSP and treated PSP with alkaline peroxide. The RPP/PSP and RPP/PSP-H2O2 composites were prepared by melt mixing and compression molding at different PSP loadings (10 wt.% to 40 wt.%). The samples were characterized by processing properties, tensile properties, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and water absorption behavior. The treated PSP enhanced the stabilization torque, tensile strength, elongation at break, tensile modulus, and water absorption of RPP/PSP-H2O2 composites. FTIR spectra and SEM showed that the elimination of lignin content strongly influenced the fractured surface and chemical characteristics of the RPP/PSP-H2O2 composites.