AbstractThis paper presents a new kind of composite produced with small-diameter bamboo (Phyllostachys glauca McClure) and extruded tubular particleboard. The mechanical properties of the composite are significantly affected by the properties of the bamboo. First, the compression strength of the bamboo was studied. It was found that the compression strength (fc, MPa) and the maximum force of compression (Fmax, kN) of the bamboo are strongly, linearly related to its outer diameter (D, mm): fc = -0.5D+79.37 and Fmax = 0.83D–0.59. The compression strength of the composite made with the bottom part of the bamboo was larger than that of composites made with the middle and top parts. In addition, its reliability was also the best of the three groups due to the variation of the outer diameter of the bamboo from the bottom to the top. The bottom part of the bamboo is the best choice for manufacturing bamboo-reinforced extruded particleboard (BREP).