The key point of design for timber-concrete composite structure is to ensure the reliability of shear connectors. This study examined the mechanical properties of bolt-type connectors in timber-concrete composite structures theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical study was based on the Johansen yield theory (European Yield Model). Push-out specimens with different bolt dimensions were tested to determine the shear capacity and slip modulus. According to the experimental results, bolts yielded without timber or concrete cracks when the stiffness of bolts was not very great. The shear capacity and slip modulus of the bolt connectors were directly proportional to the diameter of the bolt. The strength of concrete was found to significantly affect the shear capacity of bolt connectors. Comparison between the theoretical and the experimental shear strength results showed reasonable agreement.