AbstractThe objective of this study was to investigate the effect of uniaxial and biaxial compression loadings on the circumferential-radial mechanical properties of bamboo. A novel biaxial testing device, called the 3D composite material analysis system, was developed to conduct biaxial compression tests. Strain field analysis was characterized with the help of the digital speckle correlation method (DSCM). The effects of four different environmental treatments (I. air-drying, II. constant temperature and relative humidity, III. relatively low temperature, and IV. ultra-low temperature) on the circumferential performance of bamboo were examined in the experiment. The results of this study indicated that the diametric strength of bamboo evaluated by biaxial load was as 2.4 to 2.5 times the uniaxial compression. Under biaxial load, the strength of the bamboo node was about 2.38 times higher than the internode. Failure first occurred at the outside surface of bamboo at about the 45° position between X and Y axial when conducting a biaxial compression test. The distribution of X-strain field expressed itself more uniformly than the Y-strain field. The diametric mechanical properties of bamboo ring were σIV>σIII>σII>σI for both the uniaixal and biaxial compression tests.