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H.W. Emerton, D.H. Page and W.H. Hale. The structure of papers as seen in their surfaces. In The Formation and Structure of Paper, Trans. of the IInd Fund. Res. Symp. Oxford, 1961, (F. Bolam, ed.), pp 53–99, FRC, Manchester, 2018.


This contribution illustrates the structure of paper by presenting a selection of light micrographs of the surfaces of papers. In addition to illustrating a wide range of papers, the effects are portrayed of progressive beating; coating; creping; machine glazing and the glazing of handsheets; parchmentising; supercalendering ; and watermarking. The two-sidedness of the surfaces of several papers is clearly brought out and the contribution of the surface of mechanical printing papers to their printability is illustrated.

Of particular interest are the effects of progressive beating on the density of the sheet, the closeness of its surface structure and its response to glazing. It was observed that cellulosic material has the ability to replicate fine scratches on a surface with which it is dried in contact.

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