To reuse waste wood bioresources and determine the factors required for the growth of Lentinus edodes, Quercus baronii wood bioconversion during the artificial cultivation of L. edodes was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), TG, FT-IR, and TD-GC-MS. Mycelia were observed to grow in wood if cellulose was sufficiently degraded and wood extractives were adequately retained. L. edodes grew inwood if the extractives, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin maintained a stable quality ratio. Mycelium and L. edodes grew in samples with high cellulose crystallinity. FT-IR spectra showed that L. edodes grew as the intensity of absorbance associated with unconjugated C=O stretching decreased. TG curves suggested that the samples with lower weight loss were suitable for mycelium, but those with higher weight loss were suitable for L. edodes. TD-GC-MS indicated that the samples containing more phenol derivatives and less acetic acid were suitable for mycelium; the opposite trends were observed for L. edodes.