NC State
BioResources
Chen, Q., Guo, X., Ji, F., Wang, J., Wang, J., and Cao, P. (2015). "Warping and surface checking analysis of engineered wood flooring for heating systems," BioRes. 10(3), 4641-4651.

Abstract

The objective of this paper was to investigate the warping and surface checking of engineered wood flooring that was exposed to a heating system. The effects of decorative veneer type, wood structure, and wood shape on warping and surface checking were studied in a laboratory with a simulated heating system. Poplar/seven layer plywood engineered hardwood (structure C) or a 9 mm think poplar substrate layer wood was used, which contained the two veneer surface layers, structure A and structure B. For each structure, two shapes (mono-block or three splice) were tested, and a total of eight different veneer wood types were used. The highest degree of warping was seen in Eucalyptus or sapele veneer types. The degree of warping was the greatest for structure C with mono-block, followed by structure A with mono-block, structure C with three splice, and structure A with three splice. According to the surface checking tests for wood type, American ash, eucalyptus, maple, or birch exhibited the easiest wear, whereas, eastern black walnut exhibited the hardest wear. The surface checking tests revealed that the ranking from easiest to hardest wear was structure B, structure A, and structure C.
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