NC State
  • Researchpp 4718-4726Zhang, X., Wang, J., Sun, P., and Xu, H. (2024). “Performance analysis of bimodulus frame structures based on deformation energy decomposition method,” BioResources 19(3), 4718-4726.AbstractArticlePDF

    Some biological materials have bimodulus properties. The elastic modulus in the tensile state is different from its value in the compressive state. The deformation energy decomposition method for bimodulus material can be obtained, and then the deformation energy decompositions of the isotropic and bimodulus frame structure are further realized. On the basis of the quantitative results of the basic deformation energy, the proportions of the areas dominated by shear deformation energy were proposed, which can characterize the ductility of the frame structures. The cases showed that the ratio of the elastic modulus in tensile state to the elastic modulus in compressive state is the important index of bimodulus material, which affects the deformation energy distribution of the bimodulus structure. When the ratio of bimodulus material for the deep beam was 0.2, the proportions of the regions dominated by shear deformation energy for the deep beams located on the 1st to 3rd floors were reduced by 10.00%, 7.77%, and 11.11%, respectively. The bimodulus material improved the ductility performance of the frame structure.

  • Researchpp 4727-4748Jasińska, A., Sydor, M., and Hitka, M. (2024). “Optimizing dimensions in furniture design: A literature review,” BioResources 19(3), 4727-4748.AbstractArticlePDF

    Wooden furniture design necessitates the integration of both technological requirements and aesthetic considerations. To guide designers in achieving this balance, this article explores how established design principles, such as proportions and preferred numerical sequences, can inform decision-making for both technological and aesthetic aspects. The goal is to demonstrate how these principles can be integrated with modern CAD tools. In reviewing the scientific literature, this study compiled and compared mathematical and non-mathematical models that support dimensional decision-making. These models included ancient canons (Egyptian, Greek, and Roman) alongside those of Leonardo da Vinci, Palladio, Dürer, Le Corbusier, Zeising, McCallum, and Brock. Additionally, the article examines numeral systems used in modern technology, such as Renard’s series and convenient numbers. It is proposed that designers should experiment with geometric design templates to achieve balanced proportions. All geometric design principles contribute to aesthetics, creativity and effectiveness in design. The literature identifies two groups of dimensional design templates: organic, inspired by the human body or the Fibonacci sequence, and inorganic, based on numerical order. It’s impossible to pinpoint a single “optimal algorithm” to support dimensional decisions in design. Specific geometric design principles serve as valuable tools, not the ultimate answer.

  • Researchpp 4749-4762Jung, J. Y., Yang, S. Y. H., and Yang, J.-K. (2024). “Neuronal cell protective effects of phenolic compounds derived from steam exploded nematode-infected pine,” BioResources 19(3), 4749-4762.AbstractArticlePDF

    Pine wilt disease is one of the most serious forest diseases that kills pine trees. Most of the nematode-infected pines are fumigated or locally incinerated and are thus not appropriately utilized. This study explored methods to utilize abandoned nematode-infected pines. The chemical compositions of healthy and nematode-infected pines were analyzed, and the neuroprotective effects of phenolic compounds extracted after steam explosion treatment were investigated. In terms of chemical composition, the nematode-infected pine chips suffered more damage from the steam explosion treatment than the healthy pine chips. In addition, the total phenolic compound content showed a clear difference depending on the presence of infection and steam explosion conditions. The maximum total phenolic compound content of extracted ethanol was found when the nematode-infected pine chip was subjected to steam explosion with a severity factor (Ro) of 3.82. The steam exploded pine extract of 10 μg/mL inhibited glutamate-induced early apoptotic cell death compared to cells treated with 10 mM glutamate alone. These results suggested that steam-exploded pine can be used as an effective natural material for neuronal cell protection.

  • Researchpp 4763-4781Alfattah, M. A. (2024). “Bio-beneficial spectrum of Tecoma stans flower extract in vitro for fighting prostate and ovarian cancers with its anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities,” BioResources 19(3), 4763-4781.AbstractArticlePDF

    People have long used plants and plant-derived products to treat a wide range of illnesses. In the present work, Tecoma stans flower was extracted using 90% ethanol. Flavonoids and total phenolic constituents of T. stans flower extract were screened, and polyphenolic compounds were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Anti-diabetic via α-amylase and α-glucosidase assays, antioxidant via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total antioxidant capacity of T. stans flower extract were assessed. The cytotoxic action for T. stans flower extract was assessed versus WI-38 (human fetal lung fibroblast cells), PC3 (prostate cancer cell line), and SK-OV3 (ovarian cancer cell line). The T. stans extract showed promising in vitro anti-diabetic effect with IC50 = 12.08 ± 0.2 µg/mL and 22.83 ± 0.3 µg/mL for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. Moreover, T. stans showed good in vitro antioxidant action with IC50= 5.36 ± 0.2 µg/mL for DPPH testing, and the best antitumor impact versus PC3 cells with IC50 = 113.27 ± 1.59 µg/mL. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed the role of T. stans in acceleration in apoptosis of PC3 cells through regulation of oxidative enzymes. These results indicate that the derived materials from T. stans flower have multiple medicinal applications.

  • Researchpp 4782-4799Lee, Y. J., Lim, D. G., Cha, J. E., Lee, D. Y., Lee, T.-J., and Kim, H. J. (2024). “Barrier properties of polyhydroxybutyrate/ethyl cellulose-blend-coated paper through the incorporation of organo-modified nanoclay as a coating component,” BioResources 19(3), 4782-4799.AbstractArticlePDF

    A sodium bentonite product (nanoclay) was added to a polyhydroxybutyrate/ ethyl cellulose (PHB/EC) blend coating agent, and the impact of the nanoclay content on the properties of the coated paper was investigated. The organically treated nanoclay exhibited enhanced compatibility with the PHB/EC blend, ensuring uniform dispersion within the coating layer and improving the barrier properties of the coated paper. The mechanical properties of the PHB/EC blend-coated paper with nanoclay demonstrated ductile behavior, reducing the tensile strength and increasing the elongation. However, at higher nanoclay loadings, specifically up to 25%, aggregation among nanoclay particles occurred. This hindered the enhancement of barrier properties, thereby decreasing the degree of elongation. Incorporating nanoclay as a filler in the PHB/EC blend at suitable levels showed potential for further enhancing the barrier properties and ensuring economic feasibility in the production of packaging paper.

  • Researchpp 4800-4823Jegatheswaran, N., Ratnasingam, J., Zbiec, M., Ioras, F., Liat, L. C., and Ab Latib, H. (2024). “Forest carbon trade in Malaysia: Early assessment of awareness, knowledge, and constraints among forest owners,” BioResources 19(3), 4800-4823.AbstractArticlePDF

    Forest carbon credit project developments throughout the world can contribute to nature-based solutions to mitigate climate change. With Malaysia’s large forest endowment, a study was conducted to evaluate the awareness and knowledge among forest owners, and to identify the main constraints faced when venturing into forest carbon credit projects. A total of 75 companies in both forest plantations and natural forests were involved in the study. The results clearly suggest that knowledge and awareness of forest carbon credit projects is relatively low among forest owners. Hence, forest carbon credit projects development in the country is relatively slow and only a few projects have had serious development to the auction phase. The slow uptake of carbon projects is plagued by the low carbon credit price, lack of clarity in the national carbon policy, limited expertise and capability for project development, and the lack of financing mechanisms for project development. Forest owners prefer biomass production and timber production due to the higher economic returns. Against this background, policymakers as well as federal-state initiatives need to address the gaps with the forest carbon credit project development ecosystem, in order to facilitate and realize the full carbon sequestration potential of the country.

  • Researchpp 4824-4837Şevik, H., Yildiz, Y., and Özel, H. B. (2024). “Phytoremediation and long-term metal uptake monitoring of silver, selenium, antimony, and thallium by black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold),” BioResources 19(3), 4824-4837.AbstractArticlePDF

    The usability of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) in both monitoring the changes in the concentrations of silver (Ag), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), and thallium (Tl), and in reducing soil or air pollution was investigated. In the study, annual rings of a Pinus nigra tree, cut in 2023 and identified as 356 years old, were grouped into 10-year intervals, and then the changes in these heavy metals throughout the process were determined by analysing the concentrations of these elements. Additionally, the relationship of these elements with other elements was also detected in the scope of the study. The study results suggested that Pinus nigra was not a suitable bio-monitor for monitoring the changes in Ag, Se, Sb, and Tl concentrations in the soil or air, but it was a highly suitable species for phytoremediation studies aimed at reducing the pollution of these elements. Moreover, it was determined that the relationships of the studied elements with essential nutrients, such as Mg, Ca, P, K, Al, Zn, Ni, and Fe, were not statistically significant and were very weak; whereas they exhibited positive and very strong relationships with elements known to be highly harmful for health such as V, Pb, and As.

  • Researchpp 4838-4851Ma, T., Kimura, F., Tsuchikawa, S., Kojima, M., and Inagaki, T. (2024). “Validation study on the practical accuracy of wood species identification via deep learning from visible microscopic images,” BioResources 19(3), 4838-4851.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study aimed to validate the accuracy of identifying Japanese hardwood species from microscopic cross-sectional images using convolutional neural networks (CNN). The overarching goal is to create a versatile model that can handle microscopic cross-sectional images of wood. To gauge the practical accuracy, a comprehensive database of microscopic images of Japanese hardwood species was provided by the Forest Research and Management Organization. These images, captured from various positions on wood blocks, different trees, and diverse production areas, resulted in substantial intra-species image variation. To assess the effect of data distribution on accuracy, two datasets, D1 and D2, representing a segregated and a non-segregated dataset, respectively—from 1,000 images (20 images from each of the 50 species) were compiled. For D1, distinct images were allocated to the training, validation, and testing sets. However, in D2, the same images were used for both training and testing. Furthermore, the influence of the evaluation methodology on the identification accuracy was investigated by comparing two approaches: patch evaluation and E2 image evaluation. The accuracy of the model for uniformly sized images was approximately 90%, whereas that for variably sized images it was approximately 70%.

  • Researchpp 4852-4870Öman, B., and Sjöstrand, B. (2024). “Improved vacuum dewatering of grease-proof paper utilizing a multi-slit vacuum suction box in laboratory scale,” BioResources 19(3), 4852-4870.AbstractArticlePDF

    Grease-proof paper is an energy-demanding paper product to manufacture, especially during refining and dewatering. Increases in energy efficiency in either stage could result in major savings. This article investigates the potential gains with addition of a stepwise progression vacuum suction box to the forming section during production. For both a lighter, 50 g/m2, and a heavier paper grade, 100 g/m2, with a pulp-drainability of 86 °SR, a stepwise progression vacuum suction box in four steps would result in increased dryness, simultaneously with decreased energy expenditure. The observed effects were higher for the lower basis weight paper (50 g/m2). Both basis weights experienced clogging of the forming fabric due to the high degree of refining. This adversely affected the dewatering rate, decreasing the amount of air pulled through the paper even when increasing the vacuum pressure. When a stepwise progression suction box in four steps was compared to a single vacuum suction box, there was a 14% increase in dryness for lighter paper, over an equal energy consumption, measured as amount of air pulled through the paper. For the 100 g/m2 paper, the increase in dryness was 3% compared to the 50 g/m2 paper run over a single vacuum suction box. The results show great promise for energy savings when utilizing stepwise progression suction box dewatering for grease-proof paper production.

  • Researchpp 4871-4885Bozkurt, A. E. (2024). “Leaf morphological variation in Betula medwediewii Regel populations from Türkiye,” BioResources 19(3), 4871-4885.AbstractArticlePDF

    Leaf variations of Betula medwediewii in Türkiye with respect to its distribution pattern were studied because this plant taxon is a Euxine element and a distinct relict species in Türkiye. In this context, the aim of this study is to investigate variations in leaf morphological characteristics within and among B. medwediewii populations in natural distribution areas in Türkiye. Thus, the morphological leaf characteristics of four populations of B. medwediewii growing at different elevations spanning from 1472 to 2065 m.a.s.l in two cities (Artvin and Rize) and four boroughs (Arhavi, Borçka, Murgul, and Çamlıhemşin) of Türkiye were analyzed. The four populations were selected based on their natural distribution and 1,200 leaf samples belonging to 40 individuals were measured with ImageJ. According to the results of correlation analysis, statistically significant relationships were determined among morphological leaf characteristics. Mean values for petiole length (1.16 cm), leaf width (5.11 cm), leaf length (7.96 cm), length of lamina (6.79 cm), leaf area (26.62 cm²), leaf vein angle (54.21°), and number of primary leaf veins (20.03) were determined in all populations. Because B. medwediewii contributes to biodiversity and can preserve the ecological stability of the Turkish forest area, its conservation is crucial.


54 years ago

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