NC State
  • Editorialpp 1-2McKeand, S. (2015)."The success of tree breeding in the southern US," BioRes. 10(1), 1-2.AbstractArticlePDF

    Nowhere in the world have tree improvement and silviculture had a bigger impact on forest productivity and value to landowners than in the southern US. The economic impact from almost 60 years of tree improvement in the southern United States has been staggering. For example, over 300,000 hectares are planted each year with seedlings from the breeding efforts with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) by members and staff of the North Carolina State University Cooperative Tree Improvement Program. The present value of continued genetic gains from traditional tree improvement efforts is estimated to be $2.5 billion USD to landowners and citizens in the southern US.

  • Editorialpp 3-5Chi, C., Liu, M., Gong, Y., Zhang, S., and Zhang, B. (2015). "Fractal-based research approach for lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion," BioRes. 10(1), 3-5.AbstractArticlePDF

    The microstructure of porous lignocellulose has irregularity, which represents self-similarity within the scope of a certain scale, and the conversion process of lignocellulose to bioethanol is complex. The fractal theory appears to be well suited to be an effective tool for describing and studying such irregularity and complexity. Why not introduce the fractal theory as a potentially efficient and effective way to describe the process? Here in this paper, the research development of fractal theory and its potential application in lignocellulose microstructure and enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics are discussed.

  • Editorialpp 6-9Hubbe, M. A. (2015). "What next for wood construction/demolition debris?" BioRes. 10(1), 6-9.AbstractArticlePDF

    Residents in localities throughout the world voluntarily participate in the routine recycling of household wastes, such as paper, metals, and plastics containers. But when a house in their neighborhood gets built or torn down, most of the debris – including wood waste – gets landfilled. Such a waste of material suggests that there are opportunities to add value to these under-utilized resources. The great variability, as well as contamination, pose major challenges. It is recommended that reclaimed wood be primarily used in the manufacture of durable goods, and then whatever is left over be used for energy (or heat) generation.

  • Editorialpp 10-13Gao, Y., Shen, J., and Li, Q. (2015). "China's high-yield pulp sector and its carbon dioxide emission: Considering the saved standing wood as an increase of carbon storage," BioRes. 10(1), 10-13.AbstractArticlePDF

    The production of high-yield pulp in China has increased significantly in recent years. The well-known advantages of this type of pulp include low production cost, high opacity, and good paper formation. In the context of state-of-the-art technologies, China’s high-yield pulping, which is dominated by the PRC-APMP (preconditioning refiner chemical treatment-alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping) process, has a much higher energy input but a significantly lower wood consumption in comparison with the kraft pulping process. If the saved wood in the forest or plantation is considered as an increment of carbon storage, then the carbon dioxide emission from the production of high-yield pulp can be regarded as much lower than that of kraft pulp.

  • Researchpp 14-29Md Yunos, N. S. H., Samsu Baharuddin, A., Md Yunos, K. F., Hafid, H. S., Busu, Z., Mokhtar, M. N., Sulaiman, A., and Md. Som, A. (2015). "The physicochemical characteristics of residual oil and fibers from oil palm empty fruit bunches," BioRes. 10(1), 14-29.AbstractArticlePDF

    Abundant oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) generated from the palm oil mill industry create huge problems for the environment and the palm oil mill itself. Despite the importance of determining the amount of oil left in the OPEFB, little research of that nature has been reported. This study describes the oil content and physicochemical characteristics of OPEFB fibers, detection of oil attachment on the fiber’s surface using sudan red dye, contact angle values, and also the quality of the residual oil. The OPEFB fibers, which are normally used as mulch for the palm oil mill, have been found to be a rich source of lignocellulosic materials, especially cellulose, which constitutes 33.70 to 35.10% for a press-shredded fiber. Residual oil (3 to 7% on dry basis) extracted from the OPEFB exhibits good quality parameters such as deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI), free fatty acid (FFA), and peroxide value (PV). The DOBI values were still in the acceptable range, which is from 1.94 to 2.43, while the PV results are within the range of about 1.84 to 2.80 meq/kg. The major fatty acids of the residual fiber oil were palmitic and oleic acids, at 39.77% to 39.89% and 39.55% to 42.60%, respectively. There were no significant changes in the macronutrients and quality of the OPEFB residual oil. Therefore, the residual oil from the OPEFB should be recovered and reused as a raw material for industrial applications, boosting the oil extraction rate (OER) in the palm oil industry.

  • Researchpp 30-40Yu, Q., Xu, C., Zhuang, X., Yuan, Z., He, M., and Zhou, G. (2015). "Xylo-oligosaccharides and ethanol production from liquid hot water hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse," BioRes. 10(1), 30-40.AbstractArticlePDF

    With the objective of maximizing the use of liquid hot water hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse, xylo-oligosaccharides and ethanol were respectively produced by the methods of purification and microbial fermentation. The processes of purification with activated charcoal, overliming, solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and use of an ion exchange resin were evaluated, and the results indicated that anion exchange chromatography performed well in terms of by-product removal. The recovery and purity of xylo-oligosaccharides reached 92.0% and 90.4%, respectively, using column chromatography with the resin LS30 at a flow rate of 2 mL/min at 25 °C. The hydrolysate was used in ethanol fermentation with Pichia stipitis CBS6054 followed by the production of fermentable saccharides and detoxification. The highest ethanol concentration was 4.12 g/L with a theoretical yield of 47.9% for the hydrolysate after xylanase digestion and resin detoxification, similar to the data of the control experiment, which had an ethanol concentration of 4.64 g/L and a yield of 49.6%. However, the former had a higher ethanol productivity of 0.0860 g/(L∙h), and the highest ethanol concentration appeared 12 to 24 h earlier compared to the control. This study suggests that combined generation of xylo-oligosaccharides and cellulosic ethanol could help maximize profits for a cane sugar factory.

  • Researchpp 41-54Chen, M., Chen, Y., Zhou, X., Lu, B., He, M., Sun, S., and Ling, X. (2015). "Improving water resistance of soy-protein wood adhesive by using hydrophilic additives," BioRes. 10(1), 41-54.AbstractArticlePDF

    Soy protein adhesives are good candidates for the replacement of formaldehyde-based adhesives due to environmental concerns. However, poor water resistance has limited their application. This study was conducted to improve the water resistance of a soy-protein adhesive intended for plywood by polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different molecular weights. Ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), 400-, 2000-, and 10000-dalton polyethylene glycols were used as additives to soy protein isolate (SPI). The hydrogen bonding interaction, thermal properties, wettabilities on poplar veneer, and adhesion properties of the blended adhesives were investigated. Results showed that improving the wettability and intermolecular hydrogen bonding, induced by ethylene glycol, increased the wet adhesion strength by 30%. Higher-molecular weight polyethylene glycol imposed a decrease in adhesion due to its poor water resistance. Based on the present results, it is proposed to improve the water resistance of soy adhesives by introducing hydrophilic polyols, which also could simultaneously improve surface wetting and wet adhesion.

  • Researchpp 55-67López, F., García, M. T., Mena, V., Loaiza, J. M., Zamudio, M. A. M., and García, J. C. (2015). "Can acceptable pulp be obtained from Eucalyptus globulus wood chips after hemicellulose extraction?" BioRes. 10(1), 55-67.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or better than papers made from soda-AQ delignified pulps conducted in a single step. Also, a liquid fraction with a substantial content in hemicellulosic extracts was recovered in the simplified process. Autohydrolysis of the raw material facilitates carrying out soda-AQ pulping under milder conditions. In addition, autohydrolysis improves other properties relative to paper from raw cellulose pulp. Yield, kappa number, and brightness for pulp from solid residues of autohydrolysed eucalyptus wood were similar to those for pulp from untreated eucalyptus wood.

  • Researchpp 68-78Zhang, X., Cheng, Q., Sun, L., Xu, M., and Via, B. (2015). "The effect of layer moisture content distribution on lumber surface and bonding interface properties," BioRes. 10(1), 68-78.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study investigated the effect of drying on moisture content (MC) distribution through ash lumber thickness, as well as the effect on wood surface and bonding at the interface. After the drying of lumber, the wood surface contact angles and free energy were collected over 6 days, and the MC difference (between surface and core) was measured. At the same time, the isocyanate adhesive strength, as well as the elemental composition of carbon (C1s), nitrogen (N1s), and oxygen (O1s) on the lumber surface and at the bonding interface, were tested daily. Both the wood surface contact angle and free energy changed with a change in MC difference. The O1s concentration at the bond interface decreased with increased MC difference, and the adhesive strength declined accordingly. To attain the best bond interface, the MC difference between the surface and core should be controlled within the range of 0.5 to 1%.

  • Researchpp 79-87Peker, H., Tan, H., and Ersen, N. (2015). "Effects of steaming, drying temperature, and adhesive type on static bending properties of LVL made of Picea orientalis and Abies nordmanniana veneers," BioRes. 10(1), 79-87.AbstractArticlePDF

    The modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) were evaluated for laminated veneer lumber (LVL) in static bending. The studied species were spruce (Picea orientalis) and fir (Abies nordmanniana) originated from the Eastern Black sea region and prepared with phenol-formaldehyde and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. The effect of wood species, steaming, drying temperature, and type of adhesive on static bending MOE and MOR were determined. According to the experimental results, the bending strength of spruce wood (Maçka) treated with phenol formadehyde adhesives is the highest for the specimens steamed for 6 h at a drying temperature of 110 ºC. Furthermore, the modulus of elasticity for spruce wood (Maçka) treated with phenol formadehyde adhesive is the highest for the specimens steamed for 12 h and subjected to a drying temperature of 150 ºC.