Volume 10 Issue 1
- Researchpp 1773-1789Zhang, M., Ding, C., Chen, L., and Huang, L. (2015). "Preparation of tannin-immobilized collagen/cellulose bead for Pb(II) adsorption in aqueous solutions," BioRes. 10(1), 1773-1789.AbstractArticlePDF
Bayberry tannin-immobilized collagen/cellulose bio-adsorbent (BT-collagen/cellulose) was prepared via the reaction of bayberry tannin with the amino group of collagen in collagen/cellulose blends. Compared with collagen/cellulose beads without tannin, BT-collagen/cellulose had a more compact structure and higher thermal stability. Furthermore, the crystalline structure of cellulose in BT-collagen/cellulose was preserved. The adsorption properties of BT-collagen/cellulose to Pb(II) in aqueous solution were investigated and compared with those of collagen/cellulose. The adsorption of Pb(II) on both of the two bio-adsorbents reached the maximum at pH near 5.5. Based on the mass content of collagen, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of BT-collagen/cellulose at 25 °C was 1.352 mmol/g, according to Langmuir isotherms, which was higher than that of collagen/cellulose (0.345 mmol/g). In kinetics studies, both of the two bio-adsorbents reached equilibrium within ~240 min, and the experimental data could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Nevertheless, BT-collagen/cellulose had a better reusability after three cycles of adsorption-desorption.
- Researchpp 1790-1802Gašparík, M., Barcík, Š., Borůvka, V., and Holeček, T. (2015). "Impact of thermal modification of spruce wood on screw direct withdrawal load resistance," BioRes. 10(1), 1790-1802.AbstractArticlePDF
This paper reports on the dependence of screw direct withdrawal load resistance on thermal modification of spruce wood. Screw direct withdrawal load resistance was measured in native and thermally modified spruce wood. The thermal modification was performed at three different temperatures: 140, 180, and 220 °C. Tests were carried out using two types of screws in three anatomical directions. The effect of the thermal modification was unambiguous: the screw direct withdrawal load resistance decreased with increasing modification temperatures. The largest decline 44.2% was found in the axial direction and at a temperature of 200 °C, while the lowest decrease 4.1% was found in radial direction and at temperature 140 °C for conventional screws without pre-drilling. The highest values were identified in the radial direction, and the lowest in the axial direction. While conventional screws without pre-drilled holes may be regarded as the most suitable, the self-drilling screws achieved the lowest values.
- Researchpp 1803-1824Razali, N., Salit, M. S., Jawaid, M., Ishak, M. R., and Lazim, Y. (2015). "A study on chemical composition, physical, tensile, morphological, and thermal property of roselle fibre: Effect of fibre maturity," BioRes. 10(1), 1803-1824.AbstractArticlePDF
Roselle fibre is a type of natural fibre that can be utilized as apotential reinforcement filler in polymer composites for different applications. This work investigates the chemical, physical, mechanical, morphological, and thermal characteristics of roselle fibre at different levels of maturity (3, 6, and 9 months). The diameter of roselle fibre increases as the plant matures. However in contrast to this, the moisture content and water absorption of roselle fibre decrease as the plant matures. Chemical content of roselle fibres from plants of different ages indicate that as the plant matures, the cellulose content decreases. Tensile strength of roselle fibre decreases from 3 months old to 9 months old. The cross section of roselle fibre shows a typical morphology of bast fibre, where there is a lumen in the central of fibre. Thermal analysis results show that the effect of thermal decomposition of roselle fiber is almost the same for all plant ages. It is concludedthat roselle fibres can be used as reinforced material for manufacturing of polymer composites. Based on its excellent properties, roselle fibres are suitable for different applications such as automotive and building components at lower cost.
- Researchpp 1825-1844Márquez-Montesino, F., Correa-Méndez, F., Glauco-Sánchez, C., Zanzi-Vigouroux, R., Rutiaga-Quiñones, J. G., and Aguiar-Trujillo, L. (2015). "Pyrolytic degradation studies of Acacia mangium wood," BioRes. 10(1), 1825-1844.AbstractArticlePDF
Pyrolytic degradation of Acacia mangium wood was studied. The chemical composition of biomass, immediate and elemental analyses and calorific value for biomass and char, were determined. The standard and the derivative curve thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and DTG) were obtained. Devolatilization maximum of values between 250±20 °C and 380±20 °C were observed, with completion after 2 h, which confirms the selection of 2 hours for pyrolysis. Kinetic study was performed at different heating rates for a conversion rate from 20% to 80%. Average values of activation energy for temperature in degrees K of 228.57 kJ/mol for Biomass 1 and 199.36 kJ/mol for Biomass 2 were obtained by the isoconversion method of FWO. The lower value of activation energy for Biomass 2 was related to the possible catalytic activity of ash. The values of correlation coefficient from 0.9418 to 0.9946 for Biomass 1 and from 0.8706 to 0.9918 for Biomass 2, indicate the reliability of the first-order reaction model. The caloric values obtained were: Biomass 1 (16962 kJ/kg), Biomass 2 (16974 kJ/kg), chars from Biomass 1 (between 23731 y 26 942 kJ/kg) and gas from Biomass 1 and Biomass 2 (3858.7 and 4859.4 kJ/m3, respectively).
- Researchpp 1845-1856Alves, R. C., Mantilla, J. N. R., Bremer, C. F., and Carrasco, E. V. M. (2015). "Application of acoustic tomography and ultrasonic waves to estimate stiffness constants of Muiracatiara Brazilian wood," BioRes. 10(1), 1845-1856.AbstractArticlePDF
Determination of the stiffness constants of Muiracatiara wood (Astronium lecointei) was performed using Fakopp 3D acoustic tomography and James V Mk II ultrasound devices. Specific gravity, moisture content, and compression perpendicular to grain tests followed standard Brazilian requirements. Statistical tests were calculated to 99% confidence intervals. Using Christoffel’s equation, equality between stiffness constants and static modulus of elasticity occurred only when using the acoustic tomography device. These results show the importance of the acoustic tomography device, not only to detect defects, but also in determining elastic constants of wood.
- Researchpp 1857-1868Chen, Y., Wan, J., Ma, Y., Dong, X., Wang, Y., and Huang, M. (2015). "Fiber properties of de-inked old newspaper pulp after bleaching with hydrogen peroxide," BioRes. 10(1), 1857-1868.AbstractArticlePDF
Hydrogen peroxide was applied to bleach recycled de-inked pulp from old newspaper (ONP) in this study. Following single-stage bleaching, the fiber properties of the pulp (viz. brightness, yield, fiber length, fiber charge, and strength properties) were determined. Finally, the crystal structure of cellulose, fiber surface morphology, and functional groups of the control pulp and the bleached pulp using hydrogen peroxide were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and FT-IR, respectively. The single-stage peroxide bleaching applied to the de-inked ONP pulp could produce a high brightness pulp of 58% ISO at a yield of 92%. Fiber length decreased after bleaching treatment. The crystallinity index of cellulose of de-inked ONP pulp during bleaching or rinsing treatment increased due to the dissolution of cellulose in amorphous regions and/or the dissolution or loss of non-cellulosic constituents (hemicelluloses and lignin). Hydrogen peroxide bleaching resulted in fibrillation and longitudinal tearing of the fiber surface due to delignification, which led to an increase in the paper strength. FT-IR data showed that the content of carboxylic acid groups decreased during peroxide bleaching. The main chromophore (conjugated carbonyl groups) and the guaiacyl units of the pulp were damaged after bleaching resulting in delignification.
- Researchpp 1869-1878Wang, L., Shi, C., and Wang, L. (2015). "Fabrication of magnetic and EMI shielding wood-based composite by electroless Ni-Fe-P plating process," BioRes. 10(1), 1869-1878.AbstractArticlePDF
A Ni-Fe-P alloy coating was applied to Triplochiton scleroxylon veneers to prepare a magnetic, corrosion-resistant, electromagnetism-shielding wood-based composite. The effects of solution pH on metal deposition, surface resistivity, crystal structure, and the chemical composition of the coatings were investigated. The electro-conductivity, anti-corrosion properties, and magnetic and electromagnetic shielding performances were also measured. The results showed that increasing the pH favored the co-deposition of nickel and iron; metal deposition increased and surface resistivity decreased. The Ni-Fe-P alloy coatings obtained at pH values between 8.8 and 9.6 were all crystalline. VSM data revealed that the addition of elemental Fe to the deposits remarkably increased the magnetic properties of the products. The anti-corrosion properties of Ni-Fe-P coatings were higher than those of Ni-P coatings prepared in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The electromagnetic shielding effectiveness value of Ni-Fe-P plated veneer reached 45 to 60 dB at frequencies ranging from 9 kHz to 1.5 GHz.
- Reviewpp 1879-1914Ioelovich, M. (2015). "Recent findings and the energetic potential of plant biomass as a renewable source of biofuels - A review," BioRes. 10(1), 1879-1914.AbstractArticlePDF
Nowadays the main sources of energy are petroleum, coal, and natural gas. However, these fossil sources are not reproduced in nature; on a human timescale their reserves are exhausted permanently and run down. Considerable attention in recent years has been given to plant biomass, which in contrast to the fossil sources is continuously renewed in nature. In this critical review the use of non-edible plant biomass for production of various kinds of biofuels is considered. To generate energy, plant biomass either can be burned directly or it can be used after its conversion into carbonized solid fuel (e.g. biochar), liquid fuels (bioethanol, biodiesel, bio-oil), or gases (biogas). Among various biofuels, production of bioethanol has potential to be the most attractive if recent technological advances become implemented, such that the co-production of ethanol and valuable byproducts can be combined together with recycling of solid and liquid wastes. A comparative analysis of energetic potential of biomass and various kinds of biofuels revealed that the most efficient way to produce energy is by direct burning of the plant biomass in a pelletized form, while the burning of such amount of the solid, liquid, or gaseous biofuel, which can be obtained from the plant material, gives a much smaller energetic effect. Novel types of pellets, as well as solid/liquid biofuels, having improved fuel characteristics are described.
- Reviewpp 1915-1963Pintiaux, T., Viet, D., Vandenbossche, V., Rigal, L., and Rouilly, A. (2015). "Binderless materials obtained by thermo-compressive processing of lignocellulosic fibers: A comprehensive review," BioRes. 10(1), 1915-1963.AbstractArticlePDF
As the worldwide demand for fuels and materials increases, fossil resources are decreasing and global warming is a concern, and thus the need for alternative solutions is high. In the industries of furniture and housing, particleboards are interesting materials, as they reutilize wastes from other industries (wood, agriculture) although they also rely on chemical binders that are petroleum-based and toxic. A very promising alternative is then clearly identified in finding ways to produce binderless boards and associated materials. This review considers the state of the art in the field of binderless board production, and other processes making it possible to turn raw plant fibers into structural materials without using any external chemistry. The mechanical properties and water resistance are collected and compared. Identified chemistry changes occurring during the thermo-compressive process are discussed with an aim towards understanding of the mechanisms of cohesion.
- Reviewpp 1964-1985Liu, Y., Ren, X., and Liang, J. (2015). "Antibacterial modification of cellulosic materials," BioRes. 10(1), 1964-1985.AbstractArticlePDF
The proliferation of bacteria on the surfaces of cellulosic materials during their use and storage can have negative effects on the materials themselves and on consumers. People’s demands for materials with antibacterial properties have been satisfied in recent years because of the emergence of various antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews recent research and development progress in antibacterial modification of cellulosic fibers using various biocides such as N-halamines, quaternary ammonium salts, chitosan, triclosan, and nanoparticles composed of noble metals and metal oxides. Antibacterial mechanisms and treating methods for antibacterial cellulosic materials are also involved in this paper.