NC State
  • Editorialpp 1986-1987Chi, C., Zhang, S., Zhang, B., Wang, S., Wu, Y., and Gong, Y. (2015)."Professional graduate degree options in China: How to meet future needs for innovation and higher efficiency in the cellulose-based industries," BioRes. 10(2), 1986-1987.AbstractArticlePDF

    The education system for professional graduate students is still incomplete in China nowadays, and this can lead to a lack of fit of their ability with the needs of modern enterprises and society. With the development of technology and the change of social needs, many traditional pulp and paper industries are being forced to transform. Thus, the cultivation of sophisticated versatile talents with preferable engineering and innovative ability is urgent in cellulose-based industries.

  • Researchpp 1998-2008Li, R., Ekevad, M., Guo, X., Cao, P., Wang, J., Chen, Q., and Xue, H. (2015). "Pressure, feed rate, abrasive mass flow rate influence on surface roughness for recombinant bamboo abrasive water jet cutting," BioRes. 10(2), 1998-2008.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effects of pressure, feed rate, and abrasive mass flow rate on surface roughness were investigated during abrasive water cutting of recombinant bamboo. Two different thicknesses (10 mm and 15 mm) of recombinant bamboo were cut in the longitudinal and transversal directions by abrasive water jet. All experiments were arranged using response surface methodology. The parameter Rawas selected to represent the surface roughness. The value of Ra increased with an increase in feed rate and abrasive mass flow rate, but decreased with an increase in pressure. The surface roughness was lower when cutting the fiber longitudinally than when cutting transversally.

  • Researchpp 1988-1997Xu, Y., Sun, H., Li, X., Zhang, D., and Tian, Y. (2015). "Method of black liquor combustion to remove silicon from wheat straw pulping," BioRes. 10(2), 1988-1997.AbstractArticlePDF

    The effects of aluminium sulphate and sodium aluminate on physical and chemical properties of wheat straw pulp black liquor were studied. Results showed that the expansion rate was enhanced by increasing the aluminum salt content; furthermore, the effect of sodium aluminate was better than that of aluminum sulfate. The maximum desilication rate of 92.31% was reached with the addition of 3% sodium aluminate. A rheometer showed that aluminum salt had little impact on the viscosity of thick black liquor, so even at a high temperature it could be conveyed by pumps in paper mill at 110 °C. The effect of aluminium salt on the silicon removal rate during black liquor combustion was also studied. The experimental results showed that both aluminium sulphate and sodium aluminate helped to remove silicon. The desilication rate of sodium aluminate reached 62.33%, higher than that of aluminum sulphate. SEM-EDX illustrated that the aluminum and silicon ions were formed into insoluble precipitates. It was optimal to use 3% sodium aluminate as desilication agent.

  • Researchpp 2009-2019Gaff, M., Gašparík, M., Borůvka, V., and Babiak, M. (2015). "Simulating stresses associated with the bending of wood using a finite element method," BioRes. 10(2), 2009-2019.AbstractArticlePDF

    This article examines the stress-strain curves of various thicknesses of soft and hard wood when bent during three-point loading. The finite element method was used to simulate the course of stresses that occurred during the bending of these materials. Reference curves obtained by bending real specimens offered a basis for simulation. The results showed that with increasing material thickness, deflection values decreased and the proportionality limit increased; eventually, the bendability coefficient value decreased and the loading force necessary for bending increased. Moreover, it was apparent when bending hard materials that higher loading forces were necessary for different materials of the same thickness. It is possible to determine the stress-strain curves without having to perform experiments (except for indispensable reference ones) under real conditions.

  • Researchpp 2020-2031Huang, S., Wu, Q., Zhou, D., and Huang, R. (2015). "Thermal decomposition properties of materials from different parts of corn stalk," BioRes. 10(2), 2020-2031.AbstractArticlePDF

    To help better utilize corn stalk (CS), pyrolysis behavior of materials from different parts of the CS including corn stalk without pith, corn root, and corn leaf were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 25 °C/min. The apparent activation energies determined by the Friedman method for corn stalk without pith, corn root, and corn leaf were in the range of 26.4 to 103.6 kJ/mol, 37.6 to 69.5 kJ/mol, and 35.0 to 103.9 kJ/mol, respectively, depending on the conversion. The main thermal decomposition occurred within a temperature range of 200 to 350 °C (±10 °C). Most of the volatile materials decomposed at less than a 0.8 conversion rate. At greater than a 0.8 conversion rate, the remaining material was mainly char, and the decomposition of char proceeded at higher conversion rates. Different pyrolysis characteristics in the CS indicated that different treatments should be chosen according to different parts for achieving the optimum conversion rate in practical applications.

  • Researchpp 2032-2043Tavakkoli, A., Hemmasi, A. H., Talaeipour, M., Bazyar, B., and Tajdini, A. (2015). "Forecasting of particleboard consumption in Iran using univariate time series models," BioRes. 10(2), 2032-2043.AbstractArticlePDF

    The performance of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average )ARIMA) model and Double and Holt-winters exponential smoothing techniques for forecasting the consumption of particleboard in Iran are compared. Annual time series data from 1978 to 2009 in the modeling process, and observations from 2010 to 2012 were used to check the accuracy of the models’ forecasting performance. Also, the models’ performances were calculated in terms of RMSE criterion, and the consumption of particleboard in Iran was forecasted up to the year 2017 using the most appropriate model. The results of comparing different forecast models showed that the ARMA (2,1) model yielded the lowest RMSE value compared to the other two models, which makes it more appropriate for the prediction of consumption of particleboard in Iran. Results also revealed that there might be an increasing trend in the consumption of particleboard, i.e., an average annual increasing rate calculated as 5% for particleboard. Thus, it was predicted that the consumption of particleboard would increase from 901,652 m3 in 2012 to 1,178,320 m3 in 2017.

  • Researchpp 2044-2056Awada, H., Elchinger, P. H., Faugeras, P. A., Zerrouki, C., Montplaisir, D., Brouillette, F., and Zerrouki, R. (2015). "Chemical modification of kraft cellulose fibres: Influence of pretreatment on paper properties," BioRes. 10(2), 2044-2056.AbstractArticlePDF

    Chemical modifications of cellulose fibres (kraft pulp) in NaOH/H2O and NaCl/H2O systems were investigated. Handsheets were prepared that contained 25% of the modified fibres. Changes in the modified samples were examined by measuring their mechanical and optical properties and comparing them to those made with unmodified fibres. The observed differences were explained and supported by structural analyses, by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the NaOH/H2O pretreatment led to a significant deterioration of optical and strength properties of the handsheets. These modifications affected both the inner part of the crystalline cellulose (change from cellulose I to cellulose II) and the morphology of the fibers. Conversely, these properties slightly improved after propargylation, due to the propargyl functional groups. For the NaCl/H2O system, a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of the handsheets was noted, such as an increase of up to 108% of the tear index. The propargylation further increased the tear index (by 157%). These enhancements were not accompanied by significant changes at both the micrometric and nanometric scales, except for the increase of the crystallinity index after propargylation.

  • Researchpp 2057-2066Zborowska, M., Stachowiak-Wencek, A., Nowaczyk-Organista, M., Waliszewska, B., and Prądzyński, W. (2015). "Analysis of photodegradation process of Pinus sylvestris L. wood after treatment with acid and alkaline buffers and light irradiation," BioRes. 10(2), 2057-2066.AbstractArticlePDF

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of acid and alkaline treatment of pine wood on photodegradation. The work presented here deals with changes in the wood colour and infrared spectrum caused by UV light. The colour changes were monitored with a reflectance spectrophotometer. The analysis of the colour changes in wood surfaces was carried out by measuring CIE L*a*b* parameters. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study chemical changes occurring on the surface of wood samples caused by light. Wood treated with alkaline buffer was characterized by higher brightness changes than wood treated with acid. The surface of samples treated with alkaline buffer revealed similar resistance to photodegradation against both outdoor and indoor light. Greater changes in colour were detected in the case of samples treated with acid and exposed to outdoor light in comparison to indoor light. FTIR results showed degradation in the lignin structure both in the case of samples treated with acid and alkaline buffer and exposure to outdoor and indoor irradiation. The difference between the samples treated with UV 340 nm and UV 351 nm irradiation was seen in the 1512 cm-1 band.

  • Researchpp 2067-2082Emeko, H. A., Olugbogi, A. O., and Betiku, E. (2015). "Appraisal of artificial neural network and response surface methodology in modeling and process variable optimization of oxalic acid production from cashew apple juice: A case of surface fermentation," BioRes. 10(2), 2067-2082.AbstractArticlePDF

    This study assessed the effects and interactions of cashew apple juice (CAJ) concentration, pH, time, methanol concentration, and NaNO3 concentration on oxalic acid fermentation in a central composite design. The efficacies of artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) in modeling and optimizing the process were evaluated using correlation coefficient (R), coefficient of determination (R2), and absolute average deviation (AAD). The highest oxalic acid production observed was 120.66 g/L under optimum values of a CAJ concentration of 291 g/L, pH of 6.9, time of 10.82 days, methanol concentration of 2.91% (v/v), and NaNO3 concentration of 1.05 g/L that were numerically predicted by the developed RSM quadratic model. Using the developed ANN model coupled with rotation inherit optimization, the highest oxalic acid production observed was 286.75 g/L under the following optimum values: CAJ of 291 g/L, pH of 6.5, time of 12.64 days, methanol concentration of 3.82% (v/v), and NaNO3 concentration of 2.41 g/L. The results showed that the ANN model (R = 0.9996, R2 = 0.9999, AAD = 0.21%) was better than the RSM model (R = 0.9986, R2 = 0.9973, AAD = 1.00%) for optimizing oxalic acid fermentation. The use of the ANN model led to a 2.4-fold increase in oxalic acid yield over the RSM model.

  • Researchpp 2083-2093Aytin, A., Korkut, S., Ünsal, Ö., and Çakıcıer, N. (2015). "The effects of heat treatment with the ThermoWood® method on the equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability of wild cherry wood," BioRes. 10(2), 2083-2093.AbstractArticlePDF

    Low hygroscopicity is an important factor favoring the use of heat-treated wood materials. Hence, wild cherry (Cerasus avium (L.) Moench) wood was subjected to heat treatment with the ThermoWood® method for about 1 and 2 hours at temperatures of 190 and 212 °C in an industrial business. Then, trial samples were prepared and divided into two groups. By being conditioned in the environments of 20 °C and 65% relative humidity (WC1), 20 °C and 85% relative humidity (WC2), 20 °C and 30% relative humidity (WC3), and 23 °C and 50% relative humidity (WC4), equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and dimensional stability (DS) values of the samples in the first group were determined. The water thickness swelling (WTS) and water retention (WR) features of the samples of the second group were examined by keeping them in water both 24 and 72 h. The results show that EMC and WTS decreased with increasing treatment temperature and durations. Also, DS was improved. On the other hand, the WR values of all the samples stayed approximately the same.