Volume 11 Issue 4
- Reviewpp 10585-10603Jin, J., Chen, S., and Wellwood, R. (2016). "Oriented strand board: Opportunities and potential products in China," BioRes. 11(4), 10585-10603.AbstractArticlePDFNorth America’s first oriented strand board (OSB) mill was built in the early 1980’s. Twenty years later, the industry was thriving, with over 50 mills producing the product. China’s first OSB mill was built in 1990, and 25 years later, there are a few mills with a total capacity less than two large North America mills, most operating below capacity and struggling to identify domestic markets for the growing production. This paper briefly looks at the histories of OSB industries in North America and China, presents the current situation of China’s wood-based panels industry and its downstream industries, and identifies OSB opportunities and potential products in China. Opportunity for sheathing-grade OSB is very limited in the current Chinese market, whereas industrial opportunities for specialty OSB products to replace plywood have great potential. Those specialty products include materials for furniture, wood doors, wood flooring, container flooring, concrete form, etc. OSB producers must designate the right OSB products for the Chinese market and cost-effectively manufacture those differentiated products to meet specifications for various end-applications.
- Reviewpp 10604-10624Kaur, P. J., Satya, S., Pant, K. K., and Naik, S. N. (2016). "Eco-friendly preservation of bamboo species: Traditional to modern techniques," BioRes. 11(4), 10604-10624.AbstractArticlePDFThe continuous depletion of forests calls for the astute usage of existing resources. Fungi and termites cause serious damage to biomass under storage and service conditions. Various protective treatments with high amounts of toxic chemicals are used by the wood and bamboo industry. Efforts are being made the world over to develop environmentally friendly preservatives for wood and bamboo species. Recent research highlights the potential and effectiveness of traditional practices and procedures, mainly water leaching technique and smoke treatment. Under laboratory conditions, the service life of treated blocks were found to be at a par with commercial chemical preservative treated blocks. Various plant extracts and oil-based formulations, such as organic acids, essential oils, and eco-friendly chemical-based preservatives, are in the stage of development. The bio-efficacy of such preservatives is measured in terms of the improvement in resistance to fungi and termites. However, much work still needs to be done to completely determine the efficacy of many of these newly developed preservatives and techniques. The present paper discusses an overview of the developments in the field of environment-friendly biomass preservatives.
- Reviewpp 10625-10653Sarip, H., Sohrab Hossain, M., Azemi M. N., M., and Allaf, K. (2016). "A review of the thermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass towards glucose production: Autohydrolysis with DIC technology," BioRes. 11(4), 10625-10653.AbstractArticlePDFThere is increasing demand for the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass consists mainly of three polymeric components: cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. The separation of these components requires an effective pretreatment process to ensure high quality glucose production, and is highly influenced by several factors, including moisture content, cellulose crystallinity, lignin content, and available surface area. Over time, numerous pretreatment methods have been utilized to change the lignocellulosic fiber structure and to enhance the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose to polysaccharides. This article reviews thermal-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic fiber used for glucose production. Based on the reviewed studies, autohydrolysis of lignocellusic biomass, followed by the “Instant pressure drop (DIC),” method can be regarded as an effective pretreatment process of lignocellusic biomass.
- Reviewpp 10654-10676Md Shah, A. U., Sultan, M. T. H., Jawaid, M., Cardona, F., and Abu Talib, A. R. (2016). "A review on the tensile properties of bamboo fiber reinforced polymer composites," BioRes. 11(4), 10654-10676.AbstractArticlePDF
This paper reviews the tensile properties of bamboo fiber reinforced polymer composites (BFRP). Environmentally friendly bamboo fibers have good mechanical properties, which make them suitable replacements for conventional fibers, such as glass and carbon, in composite materials. Better fiber and matrix interaction results in good interfacial adhesion between fiber/matrix and fewer voids in the composite. Several important factors improve matrix-fiber bonding and enhance the tensile properties of BFRP. Coupling agents, such as maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP), improve the adhesion of bamboo fibers in the polypropylene (PP) matrix. A high percentage of lignin content in bamboo fibers limits fiber separation, which leads to less matrix absorption between fibers. Steam explosion is the best extraction method for bamboo fibers, although an additional mechanically rubbing process is required for fiber separation. Generally, high fiber content results in good composite performance, but at a certain limit, the matrix does not adhere well with a saturated amount of fibers, and the composite tensile strength decreases. However, the tensile modulus of BFRP is not affected by excess fiber content. Hybridization of bamboo with conventional fibers increases the tensile strength of BFRP. The addition of micro/nano-sized bamboo fibrils into the carbon fabric composites slightly enhances composite strength.
- Reviewpp 10677-10710Johnson, M. A., and Hart, P. W. (2016). "Integrating a biorefinery into an operating kraft mill," BioRes. 11(4), 10677-10710.AbstractArticlePDF
Kraft pulp and paper mills have several advantages for serving the emerging biorefinery industry as a source of raw materials. This review examines technologies for producing liquid biofuels, chemicals, and advanced materials from woody feedstocks to generate new sources of revenue. Market pull comes in part from government policies that drive substitution of petroleum-based products with biobased equivalents. Kraft mills have ample networks to supply feedstocks, whether these are forest residues or byproduct side streams. Pulp mills are well suited to expand sufficiently to accommodate production of value added platform chemicals that are in demand because of brand owner sustainability commitments.
- Reviewpp 10711-10755Veettil, S. I., Kumar, L., and Koukoulas, A. A. (2016). "Can microbially derived advanced biofuels ever compete with conventional bioethanol? A critical review," BioRes. 11(4), 10711-10755.AbstractArticlePDF
Microbially derived alkanes and their derivatives are recognized as promising alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. We review recent developments in their production, assess progress, and their potential against conventional bioethanol fermentation pathways. The success rate of genetic engineering efforts and their commercialization prospects are assessed, as well as challenges for producing fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Although significant progress has been made in the genetic engineering of microbes used in the production of long-chain hydrocarbons and their derivatives, titer and yield of these biomolecules are currently too low to compete with petroleum-derived products. As for microbially derived isoprenoids or fatty acids, the inherent complexity of micro-organism development will continue to present formidable challenges, making it highly unlikely of any short-term commercial take off. Nonetheless, first generation bioethanol (starch/sugar based) production is commercially established and therefore continued advancements in chemical synthesis should enable broad-scale use of bio-ethanol as a chemical feedstock for the production of advanced biofuels including butanol and other long-chain hydrocarbons.
- Reviewpp 10756-10782Mukhtar, I., Leman, Z., Ishak, M. R., and Zainudin, E. S. (2016). "Sugar palm fibre and its composites: A review of recent developments," BioRes. 11(4), 10756-10782.AbstractArticlePDFThe use of natural fibres as reinforcement in composite materials has increased over the years due to the rapid demand for renewable, cost-effective, and eco-friendly materials in many applications. The most common and adopted natural fibres used as reinforcements are flax, kenaf, hemp, jute, coir, sisal, and abaca. However, sugar palm fibre (SPF) as one of the natural fibres is gaining acceptance as a reinforcement in composites, though it has been known for decades in the rural communities for its multipurpose traditional uses. Sugar palm fibre (SPF) is extracted from sugar palm tree typically from its four morphological parts, namely, trunk, bunch, frond, and the surface of the trunk, which is known as Ijuk. In this paper, sugar palm tree, its fibre and composites, and biopolymers derived from its starch are discussed. Major challenges and the way forward for the use of sugar palm fibre and its composites are highlighted. This review also opens areas for further research on sugar palm fibre and its composites for academia and industries.