NC State
  • Researchpp 2304-2327Sakdaronnarong, C., Srimarut, N., Chantasod, R., Sraphet, S., Triwitayakorn, K., and Jonglertjunya, W. (2018). "Enzyme matching design approach on very high gravity liquefaction and saccharification of cassava root and cassava starch for ethanol fermentation," BioRes. 13(2), 2304-2327.AbstractArticlePDF

    During ethanol production, the ratio of various sources of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes significantly influences hydrolysis efficiency in a very high gravity (VHG) system. In this study, the enzyme matching approach was proposed to optimize liquefaction and saccharification yield of cassava root and cassava starch. For fresh cassava root, the synergistic effect of using Techzyme Q-Add enzyme (93 °C pH 5.6) for liquefaction and GC 147 enzyme (61.5 °C pH 4.2) for saccharification achieved the highest yield among all enzyme-matching designs. At 25% solid, highest total reducing sugar (TRS) yields from sequential liquefaction and saccharification of cassava starch, fresh cassava, and dry cassava were 87.9%, 85.1%, and 70.0% corresponding to 286.8, 249.4, and 241.1 g/L, respectively. For VHG ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5606, separate liquefaction and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SLSSF) gave a significantly higher ethanol concentration compared with separate liquefaction and saccharification and fermentation (SLSF). From a 35% solid SLSSF system, the highest ethanol produced at 30 °C was 27.3 g/L from 72 h, respectively. The results suggested that SLSSF could effectively shorten the time course of the whole process for liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation from 74 h to only 26 h for similar ethanol production yields.

  • Researchpp 2328-2341Gou, G., Wang, Q., Xie, W., Cao, J., Jiang, M., He, J., and Zhou, Z. (2018). "Assessment of instant catapult steam explosion treatment on rice straw for isolation of high quality cellulose," BioRes. 13(2), 2328-2341.AbstractArticlePDF

    Instant catapult steam explosion (ICSE) was applied to treat rice straw for isolating high quality cellulose. After ICSE treatment under the condition of maintaining the pressure at 2.0 MPa for 11 min, the hemicellulose content decreased to 3.70% from the original 20.10%, and the content of α-cellulose was 72.02%. The enormous explosion power density provided by ICSE turned rice straw into cellulosic fibers with good accessibility, as well as it protected the cellulose fibers from being over-hydrolyzed. All of the straw cellulosic samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to collectively examine the impact of ICSE treatment on the structure and morphology of the cellulose components. The recycled lignin was also analyzed by two-dimensional nuclear magnification resonance spectrometry (2D NMR) to understand the mechanisms underlying the ICSE treatment.

  • Researchpp 2342-2355Knapic, S., Grahn, T., Lundqvist, S. O., and Pereira, H. (2018). "Juvenile wood characterization of Eucalyptus botryoides and E. maculata by using SilviScan," BioRes. 13(2), 2342-2355.AbstractArticlePDF

    The wood properties of 6-year-old Eucalyptus botryoides and Eucalyptus maculata point towards a possible aptitude for solid-wood end uses. Samples from E. botryoides and E. maculata were characterized regarding within-tree variation in wood density, radial and tangential fibre width, fibre wall thickness, fibre coarseness, microfibril angle, and stiffness based on SilviScan measurements taken radially from the pith outwards at varying stem height levels. The mean values of the studied wood properties for E. botryoides and E. maculata were, respectively: density 507 kg m-3 and 695 kg m-3, radial fibre width 17.4 µm and 17.2 µm, tangential fibre width 16.7 µm and 16.9 µm, fibre wall thickness 1.8 µm and 2.5 µm, fibre coarseness 161.2 µgm-1 and 212.9 µgm-1, microfibril angle 15.5° and 14.7°, and stiffness 9.6 GPa and 12.1 GPa. The variation in wood stiffness was explained to a large extent by microfibril angle and wood density variations. The results of the scans, along with the wood variability, indicated that both species should be considered for solid wood products or pulp production.

  • Researchpp 2356-2373Xu, J., Li, M., and Sun, R. (2018). "Successive fractionations of hemicelluloses and lignin from sorghum stem by sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions with increased concentrations," BioRes. 13(2), 2356-2373.AbstractArticlePDF

    Sorghum stem, an agricultural solid waste discarded in large amounts, was effectively fractionated into its chemical components to achieve value-added utilization. The stem was successively extracted using water at 80 °C and alkali aqueous solutions with increased concentrations (1% NaOH; 60% ethanol containing 1% NaOH, 3% NaOH, 5% NaOH, and 8% NaOH) at 50 °C, which yielded hemicellulose and lignin fractions as well as a cellulose-rich residue. The hemicellulose and lignin fractions were characterized in terms of yield, sugar components, alkaline nitrobenzene, and oxidation analysis. In addition, the molecular weights were determined by gel permeation chromatography and the structures were further identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicated that the hemicelluloses yielded from the alkali aqueous solution had a linear xylan structure. The alkali lignin had a typical guaiacyl/syringyl/p-hydroxypheny structure and low amounts of contaminating sugars (less than 2%). A high concentration of alkali aqueous solution led to the release of lignin with a large molecular weight, whereas increasing the alkali concentration resulted in lignin degradation. The residual stem after the successive extractions was rich in cellulose and had a low crystallinity. In sum, mild successive extractions are a promising way to fractionate sorghum stem waste for further conversion.

  • Researchpp 2374-2396Salanti, A., Zoia, L., Simonutti, R., and Orlandi, M. (2018). "Epoxidized lignin derivatives as bio-based cross-linkers used in the preparation of epoxy resins," BioRes. 13(2), 2374-2396.AbstractArticlePDF

    Lignin, which is the most abundant aromatic polymer in nature, was used as a green substitute for the toxic bisphenol A. In particular, the ability of epoxidized lignin to simultaneously serve as a cross-linker and rigid segment was investigated. The epoxidized lignin was preferably reacted with a monofunctional amine, which acted as a chain extender, to evaluate its performance as a cross-linker, and in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether as a soft segment to adjust the resin properties. Different poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether/lignin stoichiometric ratios were tested, whereas the amine/epoxy equivalent ratio was fixed at 1:2. Some of the remarkable resin samples were subjected to differential scanning calorimetry analysis and compared with blank samples that did not include lignin in the composition. Moreover, the evolution over time of the molecular weight distribution of the selected compositions was analyzed by gel permeation chromatography until the solubility in tetrahydrofuran was appreciable.

  • Researchpp 2397-2410Zhang, L., Jia, Y., He, H., Yin, J., Chen, R., Zhang, C., Shen, W., and Wang, X. (2018). "Multiple factor analysis on preparation of cellulose Nanofiber by ball milling from softwood pulp," BioRes. 13(2), 2397-2410.AbstractArticlePDF

    This work aimed to investigate the effects of various single factors and their interactions on the preparation of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) using ball milling. These factors included the milling ball size, milling time, mass ratio of milling ball to cellulose pulp, and alkali concentration, as well as their complicated interactions. The Taguchi method was applied to the experimental design to systematically study the influences of these factors on the yield of CNF. A method for evaluating the yield of CNF was developed. Both of the simple analysis (SA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the experimental results indicated that the most significant factor influencing the yield of CNF was the mass ratio of milling ball to cellulose pulp. The interactions between this factor and other single factors, e.g., milling time, also showed significant influence on the yield of CNF. Although the influence of milling ball size was negligible, its interaction with mass ratio of milling ball to cellulose pulp must be considered during production. Based on these findings, a mini scaled-up practice was proposed to demonstrate the possibility of the application of ball milling on the mass production of CNF.

  • Researchpp 2411-2423Song, X., Shangguan, W., Zhang, L., Yuan, Y., and Lei, Y. (2018). "Effect of different boiling treatments on physical properties of cork from Quercus variabilis," BioRes. 13(2), 2411-2423.AbstractArticlePDF

    Effects of different boiling treatments were evaluated relative to various physical properties of cork from Quercus variabilis before and after treatment, including volume, density, hardness, compression resilience ratio, and color. The boiling water treatment decreased the density, hardness, and lightness of cork. Water absorption amount of cork boiled at 100 °C for 30 min to180 min increased from 28.85% to 52.50%, and expansion in the radial direction was 15.4% to 19.5%. The total color difference (ΔE*) of cork gradually increased with increased boiling time. The values of the compression resilience ratio of all corks after a pressure release at 24 h were >80%. Cork samples boiled at 100 °C for 60 min, and then dried under different temperatures (140 °C to 240 °C), had volume expansion between 35.6% and 65.3%. With increased drying temperature, the ΔE* of cork increased. Cork boiled at 100 °C for 60 min followed by microwave irradiation of different times (2 min to 8 min) had volume expansion of 39.7% to 54.5%. Microwave treatment had little influence on cork color. The sodium hydroxide solution boiling treatment decreased cork lightness, while the hydrogen peroxide-treated cork lightness increased with the increasing of solution concentration, and ΔE* slightly increased.

  • Researchpp 2424-2439Záborský, V., Borůvka, V., Kašičková, V., and Gaff, M. (2018). "The effect of selected factors on Domino joint stiffness," BioRes. 13(2), 2424-2439.AbstractArticlePDF

    When designing wooden structures and furniture, it is very important to consider joints that allow the structure to stay together and upright. There are many different types of wood joints. The selection of a joint type and its properties are some of the most important design choices. This article was dedicated to the Domino joint, which allows for strong joints. The Domino joiner is a loose tenon and mortise manufacturing joining tool. This article discusses the effect of selected parameters, such as the type of stress (tensile and compressive), size of the Domino joiner (one-half and one-third thickness), wood species (beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and spruce (Picea abies L.)), and adhesive type (polyvinyl acetate and polyurethane), on the joint stiffness. The influence of the annual rings was also monitored.

  • Researchpp 2440-2451Park, S. Y., Kim, J. C., Yeon, S., Yang, S. Y., Yeo, H., and Choi, I. G. (2018). "Rapid prediction of the chemical information of wood powder from softwood species using near-infrared spectroscopy," BioRes. 13(2), 2440-2451.AbstractArticlePDF

    Five different softwoods were used to investigate fast methods for predicting quantitative chemical information via near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. In biomass-related industries, fast collection of chemical information from a feedstock is needed. Prior to predicting quantitative information, a principal component analysis (PCA) using NIR spectra was conducted to evaluate the possibility of discriminating the softwoods. As a result of PCA, the five species were divided into three groups. This result indicated that the extractive compounds were key factors because the powder samples were separated by species having a similar extractive content. The partial least square (PLS) method was applied to develop a calibration model for predicting chemical composition. This model showed good performance in predicting the extractive and lignin content of all species. The calibration results of the extractive and lignin content for all species were indicated as R2 = 0.99. The cross-validation of the components for all species also showed an excellent value of R2 = 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. Based on our results, it was possible to suggest a useful tool for providing rapid information about wood used in the bioenergy and pulp production fields.

  • Researchpp 2452-2472Bikár, M., Sedliačiková, M., Vavrová, K., Moresová, M., and Hitka, M. (2018). "Does the combustion of biomass increase the efficiency of heating companies? Evidence from Slovakia," BioRes. 13(2), 2452-2472.AbstractArticlePDF

    Over the last decade, the consumption of renewable energy within the EU increased by 66%, and corporations have recognized that heating with wood waste is a cost-effective response to fluctuating fuel prices and a means of avoiding waste disposal costs. The main objective of this paper was to determine whether the combustion of biomass compared with the use of fossil fuels as the primary heat source would increase the efficiency in Slovak heating companies. This research was evaluated via methods of synthesis, analyses, and financial analyses. The survey found that heating companies with combined productions had better economic results. Based on the peer group comparison, heating companies using renewable resources achieved remarkably higher performance indicators. Among renewable energy sources, total biomass plays an important role and accounted for just over two thirds (64%) of the gross inland energy consumption of renewables in the EU. Wood pellets and agglomerates are currently the most economical way of converting biomass into fuel and are a fast-growing source of energy in Europe. The economic efficiency and key performance indicators strongly depend on the input prices of the energy carriers. In the last decade, the cost of heat produced from natural gas amounted on average to two to three times the cost of deciduous wood. Biomass production can generate employment, and if intensive agriculture is replaced by less intensively managed energy crops, there are likely to be environmental benefits, such as reduced leaching of fertilizers and reduced use of pesticides.