Volume 14 Issue 2
- Editorialpp 2458-2459Vasara, P., Pongpiriyakan, P., Nyman, T., Lehtinen, H., Aktüre, I., and Laukkanen, O. (2019). "Curing our addiction to fossil and nonbiodegradable plastics: Steps ahead," BioRes. 14(2), 2458-2459. AbstractPDF
We are suffering from a global plastic addiction. Ways to curb it include the decreasing of plastic end uses and substituting fossil and non-biodegradable plastics with more sustainable alternatives such as bioplastics, cellulosic fibre-based solutions, and recycled plastics. We have the problem of choice: among hundreds of plastic end uses and potential substitutes, how do we pick the best options for each case – financially, socially, and environmentally? How do we support companies, authorities, and consumers with extensive knowledge encapsulated in advanced yet usable decision support? Answers may lie in data mining as a basis.
- Editorialpp 2460-2464Pal, L., and Lucia, L. A. (2019). "Renaissance of industrial hemp: A miracle crop for a multitude of products," BioRes. 14(2), 2460-2464.AbstractPDF
The US, which historically has been a major producer of hemp, has recently reintroduced industrial hemp production. The idea is to provide agriculture and farming communities with new economic opportunities (2018 Farm Bill) to replace lost income from formerly more profitable cash crops such as tobacco. Industrial hemp is a scalable crop that could provide significant economic and environmental benefits; however, the true valorization of industrial hemp will hinge on significant innovation and the development of high-value applications. Utilization of the whole hemp plant may be the key to attaining economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Further, strong community outreach and education is required to overcome the stigma attached with industrial hemp due to its morphological and genetic similarities to its psychoactive-rich (> 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinols (THC)) analogue. This editorial identifies critical research, educational, and community outreach platforms to develop a robust US industrial hemp program, with a goal to enable the renaissance of this miracle crop. Collaboration of the forest sector, universities, and industries is urged for the establishment of a center or consortium that fosters the future advances amongst more productive hemp cultivars, local farming practices, and bioproducts development for economic outlets for this miracle crop.
- Editorialpp 2465-2467Qiu, H., Xu, J., He, Z., Long, L., and Yue, X. (2019). "Bamboo as an emerging source of raw material for household and building products," BioRes. 14(2), 2465-2467.AbstractPDF
Bamboo is a category of fast-growing and widely distributed perennials having unique physical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of bamboo are often higher (typically by two to three times) than those of conventional timbers, and it has become a very important raw material for the household/ building industries. Bamboo has been commercially used for the production of indoor and outdoor floors, furniture, and structural timber for building. Some performance defects/ drawbacks of bamboo have been effectively remedied, due to the new technologies, such as bamboo scrimber, which facilitates the market penetration/ acceptance of bamboo-based household and building products.
- Editorialpp 2468-2471Kovalcik, A., Obruca, S., Fritz, I., and Marova, I. (2019). "Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Their importance and future," BioRes. 14(2), 2468-2471. AbstractPDF
This editorial considers biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polymer processing of PHA, and the use of PHA in production of bioplastics or biocomposites. The views come from a workshop aimed to join students and experts working with PHA or those interested in the application of biopolymers. The goals are 1) to synchronize their opinions with up-to-date knowledge published in the literature within the last 10 years, and 2) to formulate perspectives and conclusions.
- Researchpp 2472-2479Silva, J. V. F., Bianchi, N. A., Oliveira, C. A. B., Caraschi, J. C., Souza, A. J. D., Molina, J. C., and Campos, C. I. (2019). "Characterization of composite formed by cement and wheat straw treated with sodium hydroxide," BioRes. 14(2), 2472-2479. AbstractPDF
Cement-based composites with lignocellulosic residues (e.g. wheat straw, rice husk, and bagasse) as fillers have reduced density and cost. Pretreatments have been applied in these raw materials to improve their compatibility with cement. This work aimed to characterize composites made from cement and wheat straw particles that had been chemically treated (2% NaOH solution) at two different temperatures (30 °C and 60 °C). Values of bulk density (209 kg·m-3) and specific density (679 kg·m-3) were determined for wheat straw at 12% moisture content. Straw yield was 71.9% and the particle size distribution showed large concentrations of wheat straw particulate material between 5- to 10-mesh. Composites made with wheat straw particles, in comparison to the control treatment, showed half the density, i.e., from 1800 to 900 kg·m-3. Also, the stress x strain curve presented a higher deformation before failure. NaOH pretreatment did not affect the mechanical properties of wheat straw composites.
- Researchpp 2480-2490de Castro, V. R., Freitas, M. P. C., Zanuncio, A., Zanuncio, J. C., de Castro, P. G. S., Carneiro, A. C. O., and Vital, B. R. (2019). "Resistance of in natura and torrefied eucalyptus wood to Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera)," BioRes. 14(2), 2480-2490. AbstractPDF
The shorter natural durability and low energy density of eucalyptus wood hampers its use in generating energy. Torrefaction or pre-carbonization, which is treatment in low oxygen with temperatures between 200 °C and 300 °C, accumulates carbon and lignin, decreases the hygroscopicity, increases the energy efficiency, and reduces the attractiveness of wood to xylophagous organisms, such as termites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of fresh and torrefied Eucalyptus urophylla (20 min at temperatures of 180 °C, 220 °C, and 260 °C) to dry wood termites (Cryptotermes brevis), following IPT standards. The torrefaction process increased the resistance to dry wood termite attack after 45 d of exposure, with mass losses five times greater in the in natura wood compared with the wood torrefied at 260 °C. The larger visual damage to the in natura chips confirmed its lower resistance to dry wood termites. Torrefaction at 260 °C increased the resistance to dry wood termites and was more efficient with a lower mass loss and wear, and caused a greater mortality of dry wood termites.
- Researchpp 2491-2512Svoboda, T., Sikora, A., Záborský, V., and Gaffová, Z. (2019). "Impact of selected factors on the bending forces at the proportionality limit and yield point in laminated veneer lumber," BioRes. 14(2), 2491-2512. AbstractPDF
Knowledge of the force required to overcome deformation at the proportionality limit, yield point, as well as knowledge of the effect of selected factors on the characteristics during bending stress, have scientific and practical significance. They are the basis for designing tools for bending and accurately determining the stresses to which products and their parts may be subjected during use. This study analyzed the effect of selected factors on the selected characteristics, including the forces at the proportionality limit (FE) and yield point (FP). The chosen factors of this study were the wood species (Fagus sylvatica L. and Populus tremula L.), non-wood component (carbon and fiberglass), non-wood component position in the composition matrix (up and down), material thickness (6 mm, 10 mm, and 18 mm), and adhesive used (polyvinyl acetate and polyurethane), as well as their combined interaction. The results contributed to the advancement of knowledge necessary for the study and development of new materials with specific properties for their intended use. The results could improve the innovative potential of wood processing companies and increase their performance and competitiveness in the market.
- Researchpp 2513-2535Morales-Zamudio, L., Lopez-Marure, A., Garcia-Hernandez, M., Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F., Flores-Gallardo, S., and Lopez-Martinez, E. (2019). "Isolation, characterization, and incorporation of microfibrils and microcrystals from Typha domingensis Pers. as impact strength reinforcer of polypropylene matrix composite using stearic acid as interfacial modifier," BioRes. 14(2), 2513-2535. AbstractPDF
Microcellulose has shown advantageous character as a reinforcement in polymeric materials and produces relatively light compounds with high specific properties. This research aimed to obtain microcellulose (crystals and fibers) from the macrophyte Typha domingensis for use as a polypropylene reinforcement material for impact strength improvement and to use stearic acid as an interfacial modifier (surfactant) between the polypropylene and cellulosic materials. A commercial cellulose was used to compare the effectiveness of the microcellulose isolated from the macrophyte. The results demonstrated the procedures were efficient at obtaining microcellulose. The analysis of the chemical composition indicated an increase in the α-cellulose content from 63.2% in the raw material to 97.9% in the bleached cellulose. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the chemical treatments changed the crystallinity. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed an increase in the thermal stability of the bleached cellulose compared with that of the raw material. The thermal stability of the macrophyte was higher than that of commercial cellulose. The scanning electron micrographs revealed the presence of longitudinal slits that favored interactions with the polymer matrix. The impact strength was greatly improved for the composites compared with the pure polypropylene.
- Researchpp 2536-2549Müller, T., Lenske, A., Barbier, C., Hauptmann, M., and Majschak, J.-P. (2019). "Geometry-invariant wrinkle detection in sealing rims of paperboard containers," BioRes. 14(2), 2536-2549.AbstractPDF
Noticeable improvements were achieved in the method for quality evaluation of formed paperboard containers. The method now allows for in situ evaluation of unavoidable wrinkle structures along the sealing rim of formed containers. An image of the sealing rim was provided. In this image, the contour of the sample was detected. The contour line was then offset to the inside of the sample, so that the new line was on the sealing rim, regardless of the original contour geometry. Along this offset contour line, the wrinkle structure was evaluated by using a previously described cross-correlation-based method. The repeatability and accuracy of the method were validated by comparing the detection results with the results from thorough human examiners. Furthermore, an approach to find the optimum settings for the wrinkle detection program is described and an outlook on implications for industrial adaptation of this method is given.
- Researchpp 2550-2575Henriksson, L., Frodeson, S., Berghel, J., Andersson, S., and Ohlson, M. (2019). "Bioresources for sustainable pellet production in Zambia: Twelve biomasses pelletized at different moisture contents," BioRes. 14(2), 2550-2575. AbstractPDF
The use of charcoal and firewood for cooking is common in Zambia, and its utilization is such that the deforestation rate is high, energy utilization is low, and unfavorable cooking methods lead to high death rates due to indoor air pollution mainly from particulate matter and carbon monoxide. By using an alternative cooking method, such as pellet stoves, it is possible to offer a sustainable solution, provided that sustainable pellet production can be achieved. In this study, 12 different available biomaterials were pelletized in a single pellet unit to investigate their availability as raw materials for pellet production in Zambia. The study showed that sicklebush and pigeon pea generated the same pelleting properties correlated with compression and friction and that both materials showed low moisture uptake. The study also identified two groups of materials that broadened the raw material base and helped to achieve sustainable pellet production. Group 1 consisted of materials with equal pelleting abilities (miombo, peanut shell, pigeon pea, and sicklebush) and Group 2 consisted of materials that showed low impact of varying moisture content (eucalyptus, miombo, peanut shell, pigeon pea, and sicklebush). The hardest pellet was made from Tephrosia, which was followed by Gliricidia.